BETRAYAL: Republicans in the Senate Guarantee US Army Base Names in the South WILL Change

Republicans in the Senate Guarantee U.S. Army
Base Names in the South WILL Change

No More Fort Benning Thanks to Senate Republicans
No More Fort Bragg Because STUPID Republicans Aligned with Elizabeth Warren Against Their Own Voters

How Stupid Can You Be

Despite President Trump's Brilliant, Strong Leadership,
the National Republican Party Is Doomed
They Are WOKE But Soon Will Be Irrelevant
by Gene Kizer, Jr.


I have been voting Republican for 50 years, and proudly so. I have voted in every election since I was 18, local, state and national. I have only voted for one Democrat in my life, a Senate candidate 45 years ago, and I still regret it.

But, except for President Trump, many national Republican leaders are stupid, cowardly and weak.

The national Republican Party is 100% responsible for the imminent changing of the names of United States Army bases in the South that were named mostly for Confederate generals as a powerful gesture of reconciliation in the years following the War Between the States, after 750,000 had died and another million were wounded.

Below, is Section 377 of the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2021, and when you read it, you will be OUTRAGED at Senate Republicans who control the Senate and did not have to do this, whatsoever, yet went out of their way to include a provision by Elizabeth Warren to rename the bases.

Senate Republicans are too stupid to understand that all the red states that give the Republican Party its national power, are in the South.

President Trump understands, which is why he has defended the Confederate battle flag and Confederate monuments over and over, as the symbols of honor, patriotism and tribute to war dead that they are. He adamantly opposes renaming our Southern bases.

Those bases are, in some cases, a century old and helped us mightily to win two World Wars and numerous other conflicts. They train some of our nation's most elite troops. I know some of those troops, personally, and love them all deeply.

There is a practical and smart reason, too, that Southern bases are named for Confederate soldiers: Confederate soldiers, fighting for constitutional government and the rights of their sovereign states when they were invaded, exhibited valor such as the world had never seen despite being outnumbered four to one and outgunned 100 to one. They are the ancestors of Southerners serving today who were inspired by them to serve in much higher numbers than their peers from other regions, as the following proves:1

The military valor of the South is unsurpassed in the history of the world, and that's why Confederate named bases need to stay Confederate. That is what President Trump knows.

The death statistics in the War Between the States are now between 650,000 and 850,000. These are the widely accepted statistics of historian J. David Hacker of Binghamton University.2

Drew Gilpin Faust in her excellent book, This Republic of Suffering, Death and the American Civil War, uses the earlier statistics of 620,000 total deaths compiled by William F. Fox, and she writes that those deaths were "approximately equal to the total American fatalities in the Revolution, the War of 1812, the Mexican War, the Spanish-American War, World War I, World War II, and the Korean War combined.3

If you use Hacker's statistics, you'd have to add Vietnam, both Gulf Wars, Afghanistan and the war on terror; in other words, deaths in the War Between the States were higher than all other American wars combined with plenty of room to spare.

Faust says the rate of death "in comparison with the size of the American population, was six times that of World War II. A similar rate, about 2 percent, in the United States today would mean six million fatalities.4

Confederate soldiers "died at a rate three times that of their Yankee counterparts; one in five white Southern men of military age did not survive the Civil War.5

Faust quotes James McPherson who writes that "the overall mortality rate for the South exceeded that of any country in World War I and that of all but the region between the Rhine and the Volga in World War II.6

To personalize some of those statistics, Confederate Col. George E. Purvis was quoted in Confederate Veteran magazine, March, 1897, from an article he had written about Union Gen. Henry Van Ness Boynton and the Chickamauga and Chattanooga National Military Park.

Gen. Boynton, with great respect for the courage of the Confederates he faced, wanted to make it a sacred memorial, not just to Union valor, but American valor.

Col. Purvis writes that Gen. Boynton and a friend had visited the Chickamauga battlefield on a quiet Sunday morning in the summer of 1888 and heard singing in a church nearby. The general's thoughts went from those sweet sounds to the hellish and "fearful horrors of that other Sunday, when the very demons of hell seemed abroad, armed and equipped for the annihilation of mankind" almost a quarter of a century earlier:7

They saw again the charging squadrons, like great waves of the sea, dashed and broken in pieces against lines and positions that would not yield to their assaults. They saw again Baird's, Johnson's, Palmer's, and Reynolds's immovable lines around the Kelley farm, and Wood on the spurs of Snodgrass Hill; Brannan, Grosvenor, Steedman, and Granger on the now famous Horseshoe; once more was brought back to their minds' eye, "the unequaled fighting of that thin and contracted line of heroes and the magnificent Confederate assaults," which swept in again and again ceaselessly as that stormy service of all the gods of battle was prolonged through those other Sunday hours.

Their eyes traveled over the ground again where Forrest's and Walker's men had dashed into the smoke of the Union musketry and the very flame of the Federal batteries, and saw their ranks melt as snowflakes dissolve and disappear in the heat of conflagration.

They stood on Baird's line, where Helms's Brigade went to pieces, but not until three men out of four - mark that, ye coming heroes! - not until three men out of every four were either wounded or dead, eclipsing the historic charge at Balaklava and the bloody losses in the great battles of modern times.

They saw Longstreet's men sweep over the difficult and almost inaccessible slopes of the Horseshoe, "dash wildly, and break there, like angry waves, and recede, only to sweep on again and again with almost the regularity of ocean surges, ever marking a higher tide."

They looked down again on those slopes, slippery with blood and strewn thick as leaves with all the horrible wreck of battle, over which and in spite of repeated failures these assaulting Confederate columns still formed and reformed, charging again and again with undaunted and undying courage.

Around 44% of the United States Army today are Southerners, though the South is only 36% of the American population.8

The patriotic South believes in America and our military, and they are enthusiastic to serve and die for it.

Of course, a liberal like Elizabeth Warren cares nothing about that but the DOD and United States Army should. President Trump does, but idiot Republican leaders like Sen. Jim Inhofe, are traitors to their own party and constituents.

This Southern military tradition goes back to America's founding, to the Revolutionary War, which was won in the South, and to the War of 1812 , also won in the South at the Battle of New Orleans while some traitorous New England States were collaborating with the British and committing treason with the Hartford Convention.

Unted States Army bases in the South, as I said, include Fort Benning, Georgia, Home of the Infantry;

United States Army, Fort Benning, Columbus, Georgia - Home of the Infantry.
United States Army, Fort Benning, Columbus, Georgia - Home of the Infantry.

and Fort Bragg, North Carolina, Home of The Airborne and Special Operations Forces.

United States Army, Fort Bragg, Fayetteville, North Carolina.
United States Army, Fort Bragg, Fayetteville, North Carolina.

Here is Section 377 of the National Defense Authorization Act for 2021. It is a good bill except for Elizabeth Warren and Jim Inhofe's horrible, idiotic requirement to rename the Army bases in the South.

Prepare to be OUTRAGED.


Sen. James M. Inhofe is from Oklahoma where there are no Army bases named for Confederate soldiers. He is SOLELY responsible for the base names being changed. Republicans hold the Senate, and Inhofe is chairman of the Senate Armed Services Committee.

He added the base name change provision then shepherded it through the Senate with Mitch McConnell's help.

Inhofe did not have to do that, but when he did, he GUARANTEED the base name changes would be in the final bill because it was in the House bill. If you have something in both the House and the Senate version of the bill, it has to be left in and reconciled by House and Senate negotiators.

Inhofe knew this but went against President Trump then lied to the public about it. Here's what President Trump said about Inhofe this past July:

Trump tweeted July 24th that he had spoken to Oklahoma Sen. Jim Inhofe, Republican chairman of the Senate Armed Services Committee, "who has informed me that he WILL NOT be changing the names of our great Military Bases and Forts, places from which we won two World Wars (and more!)."9

Inhofe LIED to President Trump and he lied to us when he said:

We're going to see to it that provision doesn't survive the bill. I'm not going to say how at this point.10

Inhofe KNEW he was LYING. That's why he didn't say how. He knew there was no "how." It couldn't be done because HE, Inhofe, put the base name change in the bill, then shepherded the bill through the Senate with Mitch McConnell's help.

That kind of lying, backstabbing BETRAYAL is what we get from Republican leaders in Congress, and it was completely unnecessary. Inhofe could have left it out and preserved the base names forever.

Inhofe is worse than Nikki Haley in South Carolina when she was Republican governor and used the Mother Emanuel AME Church murders by Dylann Roof to promote her career. She had no problem with the square, historically accurate Army of Northern Virginia battle flag on the State House grounds commemorating the 40,000 out of 60,000 South Carolina Confederate soldiers who were killed or wounded in the War Between the States when South Carolina was invaded, until she realized she could use them to advance her career. Over 20,000 were killed.

Don't let a tragedy go to waste as Democrat Rahm Emanuel famously said and Nikki Haley was listening.

She had that war memorial removed in disgrace and started the entire chain of Confederate monument removals across the country and the hatred and division that that has caused, but she didn't care. She had important personal goals to achieve.

She knew the battle flag next to the Confederate monument memorialized war dead and widows, orphans and the enormous suffering of Reconstruction. That flag represented the blood of hungry, barefoot South Carolinians who fought and were maimed and died when the state was invaded.

It had NOTHING to do with Dylann Roof, but that didn't matter. Virtue signaling Haley drooled over the media attention she would get by bullying the legislature and removing the flag, and it worked. She got her name out there and advanced her career on the suffering of people, the least of whom had more character than her.

Thank you Sen. Jim Inhofe for helping Elizabeth Warren while spitting in the faces of Republican voters.

Stupid Republicans think Confederate history is what their Democrat colleagues and the fake news media say it is, but they don't believe either of them on any other issue and they shouldn't. The Democrat Party is corrupt to the core as we have see with the first coup d'etat that led to the Mueller investigation and Russia Hoax and before that, the FBI spying on Trump's campaign, and now, with this huge widespread election fraud that has stolen the election from President Trump and given it to the most corrupt, undeserving candidate in history.

If this stands, this is the beginning of the end of our country and everybody knows it.

The 55 to 60% of the country who are non-liberal, non-Democrats, can be beat around for a while but they will sure as hell not take this long term, and not much longer.

Already we live in a tyranny of cancel culture and the obliteration of our First Amendment free speech rights by the fake news media, Google, Facebook and Twitter. They censor us, cancel us, and suppress all the news they don't want us to hear, such as Joe Biden and Hunter Biden's deep corruption with the Chinese and Ukranians and others. Polls show that at least 10% of Biden voters would not have voted for him had the New York Post stories about Hunter Biden's laptop and all the Biden corruption around the world that it revealed, not been deliberately suppressed until after the election.

Thanks to the Democrat Party and weak, STUPID Republicans, our country is now nearly as bad as Communist China. Google, Facebook, Twitter, and their executives who are getting ready to join the Biden administration, have destroyed the United States Constitution and our republic. Free speech is gone. They rule with violence and law breaking in the streets, and Democrats will enshrine mail-in voting in law, and Republicans will never win another election.

Republicans won't win the Senate runoffs in Georgia in just over two weeks because STUPID Republicans have done NOTHING to correct the situation in Georgia that allowed Stacey Abrams and her ilk to steal the general election from President Trump in the first place.

Where is the GBI and FBI questioning the woman caught on camera scanning the same ballots over and over? She knows about the corruption and all the players involved.

Where is the GBI and FBI questioning of the person who lied and said a water main break is why they quit counting ballots the wee hours of November 4th? That person is the tip of a line that goes into an ocean of Georgia corruption.

The Georgia governor is a Republican (supposedly) and the Georgia legislature is overwhelmingly Republican. How about assert yourselves and take command and rectify the horrible deal made with Stacey Abrams that promoted widespread election fraud in Georgia and disenfranchised millions of legitimate Georgia voters.

If you don't, mark my words, Republican Senators Loeffler and Perdue have no chance of winning in two-and-a-half weeks.

Inhofe's bill will cause Arlington National Cemetery to be renamed because Arlington is controlled by the NDAA each year. Arlington National Cemetery is on Gen. Robert E. Lee's estate. If Arlington's name escapes Inhofe's bill, certainly any mention of Robert E. Lee at Arlington National Cemetery won't, yet the cemetery is on land once called Arlington House and owned by Mary Anna Custis Lee, great-granddaughter of Martha Washington and wife of Robert E. Lee.

I guess mentioning Martha Washington is OK but any mention of Robert E. Lee and Mary Anna Custis Lee will have to go.

Do you see how SICK all this is? Thank you Democrat Party hatred of America and war on American history, and thank you Jim Inhofe.

Instead of destroying the history and grand heritage of Republican voters, Republican leaders in Congress, when they had the power, should have broken up Google, Facebook  and Twitter.

We all saw the employee meetings of Google where some of them were crying and vowed never to let a Republican win again.

Republicans didn't take them seriously and now Google, Facebook and Twitter have destroyed the Republican Party, stolen a presidency of the United States, and are now more powerful than the United States Constitution.

Republicans have allowed our country to become an abject tyranny and there is no way out.

Before the next four years are over, Democrats will enshrine into law mail-in voting so they can cheat every time like they did this time. This will go nicely with packing the Supreme Court and bringing in new Democrat states. We will be a one party country the way California is a one party state.

What a disgusting thought that is but you can thank chickenshit Republicans for it, and they are getting ready to pay a price.

President Trump is so loved because he is the first Republican to really fight.

A national Republican leader who fights is so refreshing to the Republican electorate because it is so rare in a party with so many who want to be loved by liberals and are willing to dishonor themselves to get there. Think John McCain and Mitt Romney and other RINOs.

The Republican Party SHINED under President Trump with so many brilliant accomplishments but now comes Jim Inhofe to put a black stain on them and weaken the structure so that Republican have to think, why the hell should I vote Republican? They don't represent me. Inhofe represents Elizabeth Warren and people who hate me.

Of course, President Trump is such a fighter and has governed so brilliantly, that the rank and file would follow him across a desert of fire if necessary, barefoot, with no water and with burning glass on the sand for hundreds of miles.

We are with you President Trump.

State Republicans in Georgia, Pennsylvania, Michigan, and Wisconsin and other places better jump into action right now. They better do everything they can to root out election fraud and act according to the Constitution.

We must make sure that every single ballot cast in this election is legitimate, and none were scanned multiple times, no dead people voted, or illegal aliens.

Every time a fraudulent ballot was cast it disenfranchised a legitimate American voter.

We can not allow machines to flip votes from Trump to Biden. The corrupt Dominion machines in Georgia, Pennsylvania, Michigan and Wisconsin must be forensically examined and confirmed to be OK, or not, and if not, as a ton of evidence suggests, then electors must be chosen by the legislatures in those states as the Constitution requires.

The Supreme Court better get some guts too and stop acting like a cowardly group of undignified clowns scared of their own shadows. They better learn from Justices Thomas and Alito and stop letting the country down. Texas's law suit was a good one and laid all the corruption out. Every state in the Union has been severely damaged by the election fraud in Georgia, Pennsylvania, Wisconsin, and Michigan, and the criminals must be held accountable.

This situation is a lot more serious than some are taking it. There is not going to be a shake hands with Biden and try harder next time.

Losing is OK but being cheated and robbed is NOT, and for the future of our country, can not and will not be tolerated under any circumstances.


1 Gene Kizer, Jr., "Republicans, There is No Downside to Defending Southern History," July 30, 2020,, accessed 12-17-20.

2 See Rachel Coker, "Historian revises estimate of Civil War dead," published September 21, 2011, Binghamton University Research News - Insights and Innovations from Binghamton University,, accessed July 7, 2014. Hacker's range is 650,000 to 850,000. He uses 750,000.

3 Drew Gilpin Faust, This Republic of Suffering, Death and the American Civil War (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 2008), xi.

4 Ibid.

5 Ibid.

6 Faust, This Republic of Suffering, xii.

7 "American Valor at Chickamauga", Confederate Veteran, Vol. V, No. 3, March, 1897.

8 Historian Phil Leigh, "Exploding the Lost Cause Myth,", accessed 12/16/20.

9 "President Trump, GOP ally vow Confederate base names won't change", July 24, 2020,, accessed 7-29-20.

10 Ibid.

Don’t Mess with Texas! Texas Sues Georgia, Michigan, Pennsylvania and Wisconsin at the Supreme Court

Don't Mess with Texas!
Texas Sues Pennsylvania, Georgia, Michigan
and Wisconsin at the Supreme Court

Texas Is Immediately Joined by 17 Other States.

by Gene Kizer, Jr.

The Law Suit Is Below and Is FASCINATING. It Lays Out Massive Election Fraud. President Trump Is Petitioning to Join the Suit too. Encourage YOUR State to Join in!

The outrageous election fraud of 2020 can not stand.

It must be litigated and criminals go to jail and, where applicable, be tried for treason and executed. The latter suits me best. Each execution would be an event to celebrate.

The illegalities of the 2020 election are bad enough but the suppression of legitimate news by Google, Facebook, Twitter and the "mainstream media" (I can't mention them without first wanting to throw up, then becoming enraged) also can not be tolerated.

We now know that the New York Post story about Hunter Biden's laptop and his allegedly corrupt influence peddling with China, Ukraine, and others, which was deliberately suppressed by Google, Facebook, Twitter, the NY Times, the Washington Post, NPR, NBC, ABC, CBS, CNN (what a joke), The Atlantic, and all the rest of it, would have swung over 10% of Biden voters away from him. That alone would have given President Trump the election.

That 10% of Biden voters have said they would not have voted for Biden if they had they known of the allegations against Hunter and Joe Biden including the interview with Tony Bobulinski, whom Tucker Carlson interviewed for almost an hour before the election.

Bobulinski was, for a while, Hunter Biden's business partner. Bobulinski gave times, dates, amounts of money, and provided devastating evidence against Hunter and Joe Biden.

Bobulinski is sincere, honorable and imminently believable. That's why our despicable corrupt media covered it up.

American citizens deserved to know this but tyrannical, immoral Google, Facebook, Twitter and the fraudulent mainstream media, denied over half of us.

This is unconscionable corruption.

There are anti-trust suits now against Google and Facebook, and I hope soon against Twitter too. All should be broken up.

They are all worse than the Communist governments around the world. They are worst than Russian oligarchs and South American dictators.

We can not allow them to trample our First Amendment rights. Who the hell elected them to anything! They are despised by over half the country.

They are all hard-left partisans who hate us Deplorables with our God, guns and patriotism.

If the Supreme Court throws out illegal votes in Georgia, Michigan, Pennsylvania, and Wisconsin, or grants other relief to the plaintiffs such as ruling that the legislatures in those states should approve the electors -- WHICH IS UNQUESTIONABLY CONSTITUTIONAL -- then Trump wins because each of those four states has a Republican legislature meaning each has a Republican majority in both the House and Senate.

Right now the electoral count, which is a total fraud, is Trump 232, verses Biden, 306, but Georgia has 16 electoral votes, Pennsylvania, 20, Michigan, 16, and Wisconsin, 10. Together they total 62 electoral votes.

If you add those 62 to Trump's total -- because he did win those states -- after you read Texas's law suit, there will be no doubt in your mind -- and you remove those 62 from Biden, Trump wins 294 to 244. That is the legitimate count in the 2020 election.

Many people in the know believe this election is part of a "color revolution" which is used by the CIA and others against governments around the world at times. The corrupt election is stolen by massive fraud including with voting machines like the oft-mentioned Dominion Voting Systems with its ties to the Clinton Global Initiative and high up Democrat leaders and activists.

Dominion Voting Systems' machines were either pre-programmed with thousands of Biden votes already loaded before election day, and/or programmed to switch Trump votes to Biden after Trump reached a certain number, thus guaranteeing that Trump could not win.

In a color revolution, an election is stolen by fraud then there are massive demonstrations, violence and anarchy in the streets.

Of course, that is poised to happen here should Trump win back this election that has obviously been stolen.

When it does, President Trump should invoke the Insurrection Act and put down the threat with 100 times the force and violence being used by the criminals in the street. They should be arrested en mass and thrown in jail and the whole thing thoroughly investigated because this is treason that threatens our country's very existence.

It is not funny or OK any longer. The rule of law and legitimate government of the United States must prevail.

Here is Texas's brilliant law suit against Georgia, Michigan, Pennsylvania and Wisconsin that is currently before the United States Supreme Court and has been joined by 17 other states who are protecting the votes of their citizens. Those votes have been nullified by the alleged corrupt, illegal Democrat Party machines in the biggest cities of Georgia, Michigan, Pennsylvania and Wisconsin.

I want to warn you. This is some damn good reading.

Texas Law Suit Against Pennsylvania, Georgia, Michigan, and Wisconsin at SCOTUS, PAGE 1.
Texas Law Suit Against Pennsylvania, Georgia, Michigan, and Wisconsin at SCOTUS, PAGE 2.
Texas Law Suit Against Pennsylvania, Georgia, Michigan, and Wisconsin at SCOTUS, PAGE 3.
Texas Law Suit Against Pennsylvania, Georgia, Michigan, and Wisconsin at SCOTUS, PAGE 4.
Texas Law Suit Against Pennsylvania, Georgia, Michigan, and Wisconsin at SCOTUS, PAGE 5.
Texas Law Suit Against Pennsylvania, Georgia, Michigan, and Wisconsin at SCOTUS, PAGE 6.
Texas Law Suit Against Pennsylvania, Georgia, Michigan, and Wisconsin at SCOTUS, PAGE 7.

“[T]hat form of government which is best contrived to secure an impartial and exact execution of the law, is the best of republics.”
—John Adams


Our Country stands at an important crossroads. Either the Constitution matters and must be followed, even when some officials consider it inconvenient or out of date, or it is simply a piece of parchment on display at the National Archives. We ask the Court to choose the former.

Lawful elections are at the heart of our constitutional democracy. The public, and indeed the candidates themselves, have a compelling interest in ensuring that the selection of a President—any President—is legitimate. If that trust is lost, the American Experiment will founder. A dark cloud hangs over the 2020 Presidential election.

Here is what we know. Using the COVID-19 pandemic as a justification, government officials in the defendant states of Georgia, Michigan, and Wisconsin, and the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania (collectively, “Defendant States”), usurped their legislatures’ authority and unconstitutionally revised their state’s election statutes. They accomplished these statutory revisions through executive fiat or friendly lawsuits, thereby weakening ballot integrity. Finally, these same government officials flooded the Defendant States with millions of ballots to be sent through the mails, or placed in drop boxes, with little or no chain of custodyi and, at the same time, weakened the strongest security measures protecting the integrity of the vote—signature verification and witness requirements.

Presently, evidence of material illegality in the 2020 general elections held in Defendant States grows daily. And, to be sure, the two presidential candidates who have garnered the most votes have an interest in assuming the duties of the Office of President without a taint of impropriety threatening the perceived legitimacy of their election. However, 3 U.S.C. § 7 requires that presidential electors be appointed on December 14, 2020. That deadline, however, should not cement a potentially illegitimate election result in the middle of this storm—a storm that is of the Defendant States’ own making by virtue of their own unconstitutional actions.

This Court is the only forum that can delay the deadline for the appointment of presidential electors under U.S.C. §§ 5, 7. To safeguard public legitimacy at this unprecedented moment and restore public trust in the presidential election, this Court should extend the December 14, 2020 deadline for Defendant States’ certification of presidential electors to allow these investigations to be completed. Should one of the two leading candidates receive an absolute majority of the presidential electors’ votes to be cast on December 14, this would finalize the selection of our President. The only date that is mandated under the Constitution, however, is January 20, 2021. U.S. CONST. amend. XX.

Against that background, the State of Texas (“Plaintiff State”) brings this action against Defendant States based on the following allegations:


1.         Plaintiff State challenges Defendant States’ administration of the 2020 election under the Electors Clause of Article II, Section 1, Clause 2, and the Fourteenth Amendment of the U.S. Constitution.

2.         This case presents a question of law: Did Defendant States violate the Electors Clause (or, in the alternative, the Fourteenth Amendment) by taking—or allowing—non-legislative actions to change the election rules that would govern the appointment of presidential electors?

3.         Those unconstitutional changes opened the door to election irregularities in various forms. Plaintiff State alleges that each of the Defendant States flagrantly violated constitutional rules governing the appointment of presidential electors. In doing so, seeds of deep distrust have been sown across the country. In the spirit of Marbury v. Madison, this Court’s attention is profoundly needed to declare what the law is and to restore public trust in this election.

4.         As Justice Gorsuch observed recently, “Government is not free to disregard the [Constitution] in times of crisis. … Yet recently, during the COVID pandemic, certain States seem to have ignored these long-settled principles.” Roman Catholic Diocese of Brooklyn, New York v. Cuomo, 592 U.S. ____ (2020) (Gorsuch, J., concurring). This case is no different.

5.         Each of Defendant States acted in a common pattern. State officials, sometimes through pending litigation (e.g., settling “friendly” suits) and sometimes unilaterally by executive fiat, announced new rules for the conduct of the 2020 election that were inconsistent with existing state statutes defining what constitutes a lawful vote.

6.         Defendant States also failed to segregate ballots in a manner that would permit accurate analysis to determine which ballots were cast in conformity with the legislatively set rules and which were not. This is especially true of the mail-in ballots in these States. By waiving, lowering, and otherwise failing to follow the state statutory requirements for signature validation and other processes for ballot security, the entire body of such ballots is now constitutionally suspect and may not be legitimately used to determine allocation of the Defendant States’ presidential electors.

7.         The rampant lawlessness arising out of Defendant States’ unconstitutional acts is described in a number of currently pending lawsuits in Defendant States or in public view including:

•         Dozens of witnesses testifying under oath about: the physical blocking and kicking out of Republican poll challengers; thousands of the same ballots run multiple times through tabulators; mysterious late night dumps of thousands of ballots at tabulation centers; illegally backdating thousands of ballots; signature verification procedures ignored; more than 173,000 ballots in the Wayne County, MI center that cannot be tied to a registered voter;ii

•         Videos of: poll workers erupting in cheers as poll challengers are removed from vote counting centers; poll watchers being blocked from entering vote counting centers—despite even having a court order to enter; suitcases full of ballots being pulled out from underneath tables after poll watchers were told to leave.

•         Facts for which no independently verified reasonable explanation yet exists: On October 1, 2020, in Pennsylvania a laptop and several USB drives, used to program Pennsylvania’s Dominion voting machines, were mysteriously stolen from a warehouse in Philadelphia. The laptop and the USB drives were the only items taken, and potentially could be used to alter vote tallies; In Michigan, which also employed the same Dominion voting system, on November 4, 2020, Michigan election officials have admitted that a purported “glitch” caused 6,000 votes for President Trump to be wrongly switched to Democrat Candidate Biden. A flash drive containing tens of thousands of votes was left unattended in the Milwaukee tabulations center in the early morning hours of Nov. 4, 2020, without anyone aware it was not in a proper chain of custody.

8.         Nor was this Court immune from the blatant disregard for the rule of law. Pennsylvania itself played fast and loose with its promise to this Court. In a classic bait and switch, Pennsylvania used guidance from its Secretary of State to argue that this Court should not expedite review because the State would segregate potentially unlawful ballots. A court of law would reasonably rely on such a representation. Remarkably, before the ink was dry on the Court’s 4- 4 decision, Pennsylvania changed that guidance, breaking the State’s promise to this Court. Compare Republican Party of Pa. v. Boockvar, No. 20-542, 2020 U.S. LEXIS 5188, at *5-6 (Oct. 28, 2020) (“we have been informed by the Pennsylvania Attorney General that the Secretary of the Commonwealth issued guidance today directing county boards of elections to segregate [late-arriving] ballots”) (Alito, J., concurring) with Republican Party v. Boockvar, No. 20A84, 2020 U.S. LEXIS 5345, at *1 (Nov. 6, 2020) (“this Court was not informed that the guidance issued on October 28, which had an important bearing on the question whether to order special treatment of the ballots in question, had been modified”) (Alito, J., Circuit Justice).

9.         Expert analysis using a commonly accepted statistical test further raises serious questions as to the integrity of this election.

10.       The probability of former Vice President Biden winning the popular vote in the four Defendant States—Georgia, Michigan, Pennsylvania, and Wisconsin—independently given President Trump’s early lead in those States as of 3 a.m. on November 4, 2020, is less than one in a quadrillion, or 1 in 1,000,000,000,000,000. For former Vice President Biden to win these four States collectively, the odds of that event happening decrease to less than one in a quadrillion to the fourth power (i.e., 1 in 1,000,000,000,000,0004). See Decl. of Charles J. Cicchetti, Ph.D. (“Cicchetti Decl.”) at ¶¶ 14-21, 30-31. See App. 4a-7a, 9a.

11.       The same less than one in a quadrillion statistical improbability of Mr. Biden winning the popular vote in the four Defendant States—Georgia, Michigan, Pennsylvania, and Wisconsin— independently exists when Mr. Biden’s performance in each of those Defendant States is compared to former Secretary of State Hilary Clinton’s performance in the 2016 general election and President Trump’s performance in the 2016 and 2020 general elections. Again, the statistical improbability of Mr. Biden winning the popular vote in these four States collectively is 1 in 1,000,000,000,000,0005. Id. 10-13, 17-21, 30-31.

12.       Put simply, there is substantial reason to doubt the voting results in the Defendant States. . . .

The above is a VERY SMALL portion of this lengthy lawsuit.
Download a PDF of the ENTIRE LAWSUIT by clicking here and send it to everybody you can! It is 1.3 mg. Save it to your computer and email it to your list and post it on your website.
Here is the PDF on the Texas Attorney General's website. Copy and paste this:
Encourage your state, if it isn't one of the 17 already standing with Texas, to
This should be an overwhelming effort by those who love America and the rule of law because there is no tomorrow for our country if we lose.



i See

ii All exhibits cited in this Complaint are in the Appendix to the Plaintiff State’s forthcoming motion to expedite (“App. 1a151a”). See Complaint (Doc. No. 1), Donald J. Trump for President, Inc. v. Benson, 1:20-cv-1083 (W.D. Mich. Nov. 11, 2020) at ¶¶ 26-55 & Doc. Nos. 1-2, 1-4.

Join the Abbeville Institute the Premier Organization in America for the Study of that Glorious Place South of the Mason-Dixon Line.

Join the Abbeville Institute,
the Premier Organization in America for the Study of
that Glorious Place South of the Mason-Dixon Line.

by Gene Kizer, Jr.

If I was on Jeopardy! and Alex Trebek (God Bless him! Rest in peace, Alex!) asked me to name one personality from the Old South that is typical of the scholarly firepower and spirit of the Abbeville Institute, I would unhesitatingly state Alexander Hamilton Stephens, "Little Alec," as his friend Robert Toombs called him, and I would cite as proof his brilliant two volume set of over 1,200 pages, A Constitutional View of the Late War Between the States; Its Causes, Character, Conduct and Results. Presented in a Series of Colloquies at Liberty Hall.

Or perhaps Albert Taylor Bledsoe, or William Gilmore Simms, maybe Edgar Allan Poe or Joel Chandler Harris. If the question extended into the 20th century maybe Douglas Southall Freeman or Richard Weaver, maybe C. Vann Woodward, definitely Shelby Foote, William Faulkner and D. W. Griffith.

There are too many to list but the point is, you can find all of their spirits and SO many others from our rich Southern culture alive and well at the Abbeville Institute.

Join and support the Abbeville Institute!

Abbeville Institute newsletter, Fall, 2020, front cover.
Abbeville Institute newsletter, Fall, 2020, front cover.

America desperately needs the discourse and scholarship the Abbeville Institute is injecting into this pathetic "woke" twenty-first century we find ourselves in.

We are in an uncharted time in American history when as a country we desperately need the good sense and character of Southerners who are grounded, solid and proud of the fact that we founded this great nation and impressed our values on it from the beginning with Georgia Washington and Thomas Jefferson, to Robert E. Lee.

Just like before World War II, when the German American Bund and their Nazi and anti-Semitic propaganda was warmly welcomed in many Northern cities, penetrating the South was much more difficult. We know who we are and we like what we know.

At the Abbeville Institute, you might meet your future spouse, perhaps a like-minded individual in a lecture full of ladies and gentlemen enjoying and contributing in a fun learning atmosphere.

There are Podcasts, excellent Blog Articles daily by email (Thank you Dr. Brian McClanahan!), Seminars like this one I went to in 2018: Charleston, SC: Attacking Confederate Monuments and Its Meaning for America. It featured several distinguished speakers, then an open bar and dinner in the evening with keynote address by former Georgia Congressman, Ben Jones, whom you might know better as "Cooter" in the Dukes of Hazard! It was GREAT and there were hundreds of people (maybe over 1,000!) there at the Crowne Plaza Hotel in North Charleston. They have events like this all over the country. Check out their Past Events and Photo Gallery.

There are Audio Lectures and YouTube Videos.

They have done 17 week-long Summer Schools at beautiful Camp Saint Christopher on Seabrook Island, South Carolina where the food and atmosphere is excellent, and the days are long with relaxing evening discussions after the day's activities.

I don't want to leave out anything because there is also a Review of Books, the Clyde Wilson Library (great articles by, you guessed it, Clyde Wilson!), the Abbeville Institute Press, and Recommended Books, Music and More.

Their Purpose and Principles are stated in a video by founder, Don Livingston.

There is a Contact Form and Article Submission Information.

Please DONATE to this outstanding organization (I do NOT get a commission for this! This promo in my blog is a labor of love because I want to be effective for the truth of Southern history and this is one way to do it!).

To give you a taste of what to expect out of the Abbeville Institute, here is an article from their Fall, 2020 newsletter that came out recently. The emphasis is theirs. Article is entitled:

The Charleston City Council Signals Its Virtue to the Left
Tearing Down the Monument to South Carolina's
Greatest Statesman.

On June 24, in the middle of the night, the city's magnificent monument to John C. Calhoun was destroyed. You have to wonder why. Calhoun has been judged by many to be a model of statesmanship. A senate committee chaired by John F. Kennedy ranked him among the top five senators of all time. And he was the first American to work out an original political philosophy, his Disquisition on Government is in league with the work of great modern political philosophers such as Hobbes, Locke, Rousseau, and Hume. Nineteenth century British philosophers, John Stuart Mill and Lord Acton admired it, and it is studied around the world today.

Why was the monument to this great statesman reduced to rubble? What was so horrible that even Clemson University removed his name from the Calhoun Honors College, which sits on the ground of his plantation and home and was given by the family to create the university?

The answer is that in a Senate speech given in 1837 Calhoun said, "slavery is a positive good." Historians have taken him to mean that slavery "abstractly considered" is a good thing and have presented Calhoun as a moral monster, against which a self-congratulatory American liberalism defines itself. There is no excuse for this because the senate stenographer records that Calhoun strongly, "denied having pronounced slavery in the abstract a good." All he said was that given "existing circumstances" in the United States, it was the best arrangement for the African population and the country. What were those circumstances? And what was the morally right thing to have done about slavery in antebellum America?

First, slavery was not a wrong peculiar to the South. Massachusetts, in 1641, was the first colony to legalize the slave trade. New England ran a slave trade with Africa for 170 years. As of 1860, the wealth of the Northeast was built on financing, servicing, shipping, and insuring slave produced staples. By some estimates the North received 40 cents of every dollar made by the planters. From the first, most federal revenue came from the South's vast export trade. In short, slavery was a national wrong. So, the morally right thing would have been a nationally funded program to emancipate slaves, compensate the planters, and integrate the African population into American society.

Yet during the entire antebellum era, no Northern leaders ever put forth a nationally funded plan of compensated emancipation and integration. Integration was especially out of the question. The constitution of Lincoln's Illinois prohibited any free blacks from entering the state. Every state in the Midwest and West either prohibited or severely restricted their entrance. The Republican Party platform of 1856 said, in part, that: "all unoccupied territories of the United States, and such as they may hereafter acquire, shall be reserved for the white Caucasian race, a thing that cannot be except by the exclusion of slavery." Lincoln agreed, saying the region should be kept free of "the troublesome presence of free Negroes."

Lincoln explained why no national plan of emancipation had been put forth. If slaves were freed without civil rights most would be thrown in to vagabondage and crime which would make them worse off. But neither could they be emancipated with civil rights because he said: "My own feelings will not admit of this," nor would those of the "great mass" of Americans. He concluded: "We cannot, then, make them equals." And he confessed: "If all earthly power were given to me, I should not know what to do, as to the existing institution." So, he kicked the can down the road.

Next to colonizing blacks abroad, Lincoln (and the North) favored segregation. "What I would most desire," he said, "is a separation of the white and black races." By this he meant continental segregation, keeping the North and West white and the South bi-racial. Slavery, he said, might last a "hundred years" if confined to the South. A virtually all white North and West was not a pipe dream. By 1860, it was nearly a fact. Blacks in New England were a mere 0.8 percent. In the rest of the North, 1.8 percent, and in the West, 1.1 percent. By contrast, blacks in the Upper South were around 20 percent. In the Deep South, 42 percent.

But many anti-slavery advocates were not content with confining blacks, slave and free, to the South. They urged policies that would gradually lead to the extinction of blacks. The Republican controlled House Committee on Emancipation Policy said in its 1862 report: "the highest interests of the white race, whether Anglo-Saxon, Celtic, or Scandinavian, requires that the whole country should be held and occupied by these races alone." The extinction would happen "naturally" because it was thought blacks were structurally inferior, and without the cradle to grave care of the plantation system, could not compete with whites in a free market in labor. They would die out or move to racially mixed Mexico or be willing to accept federally funded colonization.

Though it forms no part of our public history, what I shall call the "extinction thesis" was widely held in Northern society and at the highest level. Consider Theodore Parker. He was the very exemplar of radical abolitionism, a charismatic minister, and a supporter of John Brown's raid on Harper's Ferry. Yet he was so convinced of black inferiority that he declared: "When slavery is abolished the African population will decline in the United States and die out of the South as out of [New England (Abbeville italics)]." Horace Bushnell was an abolitionist and one of the North's distinguished theologians. It did not bother him that emancipation would mean the extinction of blacks: "since we must all die, why should it grieve us, that a stock thousands of years behind, in the scale of culture, should die with few and still fewer children to succeed, till finally the whole succession remains in the more cultivated race." Charles Francis Adams, grandson of John Quincy Adams, said that emancipation means "the inferior [blacks] will disappear . . . before the more vigorous race." And Reverend J. M. Sturtevant, president of Illinois College said that with emancipation, blacks would "melt away and disappear forever from the midst of us." The Yankee sage, Ralph Waldo Emerson agreed: "the black man" in America, he said, is "destined for museums like the Dodo."

Southerners were excoriated in Congress without mercy for perpetuating the "evil" of slavery. Calhoun challenged anti-slavery Northern senators that if they really believed slavery, as practice in the South, was an unmitigated evil, they were morally bound "to put it down." But that would mean paying their share in the cost of emancipation and in allowing free blacks to settle in their societies. It also meant losing the enormous profits gained from servicing the institution. None of that was acceptable. So, despite all the handwringing and vilification, slavery was to remain. In saying slavery was a positive good, Calhoun was being intentionally outrageous to jar the Yankee critic out of ideological posturing about slavery (which only inflamed passions, was morally corrupting, and produced no positive good for the slave or the country), into examining the actual practice of slavery to see what good it produced.

Calhoun was a man of the nineteenth century who believed in progress, and he viewed slavery as an evolving, progressive institution. The Africans had arrived a demoralized people, torn from their tribal roots and devoid of a European culture. Calhoun considered it a great achievement that (unlike in the North), blacks, slave and free, had become an integral part of Southern society through the plantation household. Masters and slaves attended the same church. Their lodgings were often in the same yard and sometimes the same house. Calhoun took pride in the fact that in the arts of "civilization": some had "nearly kept pace" with their masters. And he put no limit on what they might achieve or how the institution of slavery in the South might evolve.

He argued that as to physical well-being, slaves were arguably better off than Yankee factory workers who could be cast aside after years of service if they became ill or were otherwise not useful. Some corroboration for his argument can be found in Time on the Cross, a study of the economics of Southern slavery by Robert Fogel, a Nobel laureate in economics, and Stanley Engerman, an authority on slave economies. Historians, they say, have exaggerated both the cruelty of slavery and the abolitionist's belief in the inferiority of blacks. They show (as Calhoun argued) that slavery was an evolving institution. As international markets became more competitive, planters educated slaves in valuable production, engineering, and management skills that required initiative and more responsibility. These qualities, the authors say, could not be generated by force alone but required incentives in pecuniary gain as well as more liberty and respect.

By 1860, the institution for a great many slaves, had evolved into a condition of what the authors call "quasi-slavery" and "quasi-liberty," which intimated eventual emancipation. By 1860 nearly half the blacks of Maryland were free. When John Brown invaded Harpers Ferry to start a slave uprising, there were 1,251 free blacks and 88 slaves. The first man he killed was a free black man going about his work. As of 1860, free blacks in the South owned property worth $25,000,000 or $800,000,000 today.

If Calhoun's vision of slavery as a progressive, evolving institution is rejected, what alternatives did Northern anti-slavery advocates provide? They were the following. (1) The abolitionist's demand for "immediate and uncompensated" emancipation. This was pure fantasy and morally reprehensible because it failed to acknowledge the North's responsibility for the origin and continuation of slavery. (2) Colonization abroad was impractical because few blacks wanted to leave, and few Northerners wanted to pay. (3) The policy of continental segregation confined slavery to the South where it would eventually die out, leaving the nation virtually free of blacks. But given the great racial imbalance in the South, the "dying out" would be long drawn out and painful for the black man before he became what Emerson called the "Dodo" in a "museum."

All the Northern anti-slavery alternatives were fantasies, mere attempts to escape the presence of blacks. None confronted the true moral challenge, namely a national program of emancipation, compensation, and integration. But worse, there was not concern for the welfare of blacks as there was in Calhoun's vision. All were about the interests of white Northerners. And that disposition continue into and after the War. The Emancipation Proclamation was a mere military measure designed to cause a slave uprising to end the War. No provision was made before hand to care for those freed. When Confederate Vice President Alexander Stephens asked Lincoln how he was to provide for the mass of slaves, he replied: "Root hot!" (from the saying "Root hog or die"). Recent studies show that tens of thousands died of starvation an disease, uprooted by the Emancipation Proclamation and from the care of the plantation.

After the War, the vast western territory could have provided farms to give the freedmen a fresh start, and there was a great demand for labor in postwar Northern industry. But both land and jobs were closed to the freedmen in favor of European immigrants. In contrast, the railroads were given more land than the territorial size of Germany!

Finally, Lincoln would not allow the South to secede and work out an eventual emancipation on its own terms. He invaded and conquered the region not to free slaves (as he repeatedly confessed) but to prevent secession in order to build a regime of economic nationalism controlled by the New York-Chicago industrial axis. The death toll for the invasion, if civilians and the humanitarian disaster of the Emancipation Proclamation are included, is around a million.

When Calhoun's vision of slavery as an evolving progressive institution is compared to the Northern anti-slavery alternative of continental segregation and the macabre Darwinian notion of gradual black extinction through emancipation to achieve an all-white America, the Yankee alternative appears morally reprehensible. In some respects, Calhoun's vision is morally superior. It is certainly not worse. In any case, Calhoun does not deserve the treatment meted out by historians who treat his limited, circumstantial defense of slavery as a reprehensible universalist attachment to bondage---something he explicitly disowned.

Antebellum America is a strange and complex place but not to the one-dimensional Woke mind of Charleston's mayor and city council. They made rubble of the monument to one of America's greatest statesmen and political thinkers because he endorsed "white supremacy," as if the Northern segregation and extinction policies of Lincoln, Bushnell, Parker, and Emerson did not. This impious act has impoverished the rich and complex cultural inheritance that should be passed on to the youth of South Carolina, black and white. Students will see no reason to read Calhoun and, consequently, will be bereft of the wisdom contained in his philosophical explanation of how tyranny arises in the American system and how it can be prevented.

Experience has shown that thoughtful black students, given the opportunity to gain a clear-eyed view of the continental segregation and extinction policy of Northern anti-slavery, often come to see Calhoun as an honorable and humane man seeking to do the best, given the constraints of his time, and are more inclined to take down a monument to Lincoln who talked about freedom abstractly but did nothing to ameliorate the condition of black people before or during the War.

Writing in the Ashes by Douglas Southall Freeman

Writing in the Ashes

by Douglas Southall Freeman

Chapter II of his book,

The South to Posterity
An Introduction to the Writing of
Confederate History

(New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1939. The spelling
and citation are Douglas Southall Freeman's.)

The South to Posterity by Douglas Southall Freeman - Title Page.

Sherman marched to the sea; the forts of Mobile fell one by one after a defense worthy of Troy; and, on Palm Sunday, 1865, when the first touch of green was coming to the forests of Midland Virginia, Lee surrendered. It is impossible fully to realize now what the death of the Confederacy meant to the South. For four years the two had been synonymous. A common cause never had unified the South completely, even when it was the Confederacy; but the blows delivered on the anvil of war from Sabine Pass to Harpers Ferry had brought the Southern States nearer a welding than ever they had been. Then, suddenly, the South found itself eleven conquered States---each one of which felt itself in a strange manner the guardian of a disembodied Confederacy and the defender of its history. Neither the Poland for which Sienkiewicz wrote nor the Czecho-Slovakia of our own time affords more than a crude analogy. Even while the ashes still smoldered, Southerners began to write in them "vindications of Southern rights," memorials of the fallen, personal narratives and military and political apologia.

Some of the first works on the constitutional basis of secession were written during the five years when the proudest of American individualists were under military rule. Many of their own newspapers fell into the hands of those who usually are grouped together as "carpet-baggers and scallywags." From the lips of bitter radicals in Congress, all Confederates received like denunciation as "rebels." They were disfranchised. None of them had larger security than was represented by military paroles, and some had not even that. Their former servants were their political masters and were incited against them. Around them were all the evidence of what war costs in widows' tears and orphans' woe, in death and in poverty. Leaders in every State felt that where the war had taken so hideous a toll, they should prove to posterity that the struggle was one for constitutional right. So, from many pens, there began to flow defences of the South.

The longest of these is Alexander H. Stephens' Constitutional View of the Late War between the States issued in two volumes in 1867.1 This surely is one of the most unusual books ever written in the United States by a man of high intelligence. Vice President Stephens had a feeble, deformed figure, and was more boy than man in appearance, but he was blessed with a keen mind and impressive eloquence. After the war he received at his Georgia home, Liberty Hall, a number of old-time Northern friends. With them he argued for days on the constitutional issues of the struggle, and ere long he decided that he would present the Southern case in dialogue. He introduced three fictitious individuals to debate with him---Judge Bynum from Massachusetts, who represented the radical Republican viewpoint, Professor Norton, of Connecticut, who spoke for conservative Republicans, and Major Heister, a Pennsylvanian and a Northern War Democrat. With these personages, Mr. Stephens discoursed on the constitution for some 1200 printed pages. In this day the reading not less than the method of presentation has its associations with Job, but every argument on every phase of the right of secession is set forth.

Douglas Southall Freeman, c. 1916, approx. age 30, as the new editor of the Richmond News Leader.
Douglas Southall Freeman, c. 1916, approx. age 30, as the new editor of the Richmond News Leader.

In sharpest contrast to Mr. Stephens' maximum opus stands that brief classic of American political argument---Is Davis a Traitor?2 This little book, written at white heat and published in 1866, is probably the most dazzling product of the near-genius of Alfred T. Bledsoe, Kentucky born, a graduate of West Point, lawyer in Illinois, professor of French and later of Mathematics in the University of Mississippi and the University of Virginia. War Clerk Jones, who presently will appear, gives an unhappy picture of Doctor Bledsoe while assistant Secretary of War, as a groaning mountain of flesh much averse to the routine work he had to do; but when one reads Bledsoe's argument on secession or follows him through the pages of the Southern Review, one gets an entirely different picture. Doctor Bledsoe was counsel for the defence, to be sure, but he was a great advocate and a most discerning analyst. If any Americans are either curious or dubious concerning the issues raised in 1861, Bledsoe is the supreme Southern authority.

Following Bledsoe and Stephens, so many Southerners devoted themselves to the presentation of the constitutional argument that a convinced audience quickly grew tired. Even the Reverend J. William Jones---a man who never heard any story of the Confederacy otherwise than with reverence---had to admit at a later time in the Southern Historical Society Papers that he could not attempt to publish all the Confederate memorial addresses. His reason doubtless was that these speeches usually were a mere restatement of the argument on the right of secession.

Two later incidents may serve to illustrate how far the South went. Twenty years ago a young Southerner was asked to go into the Northern Neck of Virginia as one of two speakers at a Confederate reunion. His senior and principal was a State official born early enough to have some memory of the war. As they made their way on a little yacht to the place of meeting, the younger man made bold to ask the orator of the evening what his subject would be, in order that duplication might be avoided. The elderly politician spread himself in the amplitude of his deck-chair and answered: "Well, I shall relate briefly the outstanding events of the period during which the constitution of the United States was drafted; then I shall trace the pernicious development and expose the fallacy of John Marshall's theory of nationalism, and I shall vindicate beyond all cavil the right of secession; from that I shall pass to the events of the war and shall pay tribute to General Lee, to General Jackson and to the private soldier; and I shall conclude, of course, with a tribute to Southern womanhood." He essayed all for which he contracted, though nodding heads were not lifted at the last to his lofty flight in praise of Southern women---as if they needed praise.

The other instance concerned a Southern staff-officer who wrote one most useful book in the eighteen-seventies and, after almost thirty years, decided to write a second. He prefaced a valuable historical narrative with a long discourse on secession and sent the whole to a Northern publishing house. The editor-in-chief praised the manuscript but said that, in his opinion, the case for secession had been stated so often that the book would lose its effectiveness if preceded by a detailed argument on the subject. After some exchanges, the author had to choose between the excision of the essay on secession and the rejection of the manuscript by a firm that would have printed it expansively and would have circulated it widely. The old Confederate did not hesitate. He demanded the return of the manuscript and issued his book through a local printing house---with every word of the paper on secession in proper place. That was wholly characteristic of the mind of the Southern survivors of the war. Always their cry was, "Hear me for my cause. . . . "

An older Douglas Southall Freeman, still hard at work.
An older Douglas Southall Freeman, still hard at work.

Next to the men who wrote in the ashes the vindication of the South were those authors who memorialized the dead. These writers had begun their labors ere the battles ended. Their children have continued it. Every year witnesses the publication of volumes that are primarily memorials to Confederates who may have been dead this half century. Some of these books represent little more than ancestor-worship and have scant historical value. Others include letters of war-date or early reminiscences that occasionally illuminate some of the many dark passages of Confederate history. Several memoirs of known importance still are in manuscript.

Perhaps the most distinguished of the memorialists was Robert Lewis Dabney. This able, conservative divine was forty years of age and was teaching in the Union Theological Seminary of the Presbyterian church in Virginia when, in 1860, he was asked informally if he would accept the pastorate of the Fifth Avenue Presbyterian Church, New York City. The same year he was offered a professorship at Princeton. He declined both proposals because he felt the South needed him.3 By the spring of 1862, he was a major on the staff of "Stonewall" Jackson and was following the bloody course of the Army of the Valley from Front Royal to Winchester and back again to Cross Keys and to Port Republic. In Jackson he found his idol, and to the service of that amazing man he devoted his whole heart.

After Jackson was killed, Major Dabney was asked by the general's widow to prepare a Life of the fallen leader. Doctor Dabney proceeded to write more than a biography. It shaped itself as a memorial, succession of moral lessons, a review of the Southern cause and an expose of the misdeeds of the North. This labor Dabney was completing when the Confederacy perished. An English edition was issued in 1865, but this was revised slightly for American publication and was not in final form until April 1, 1866. Mrs. Jackson was most anxious that General Lee read the biography before it appeared in this country and, on a visit to Lexington, she brought the manuscript with her. General Lee read it, as he said, for the delight of the narrative---it was one of the few books on the war that ever he read---and to his embarrassment he found several instances where Major Dabney manifestly had asserted more for Jackson in respect to the strategy of the Army than the records justified or "Old Jack" ever would have dreamed of crediting to himself.

Lee had the difficult task of telling this to Mrs. Jackson and, in so doing, he pursued the familiar masculine method of obscuring what he did not think it tactful to say in plain terms. One point, among several, involved a sharp difference of opinion concerning the unhappy affair at Falling Waters, Sept. 19, 1862, when Gen. W. N. Pendleton, chief of artillery, rode to Army headquarters at midnight and reported that he feared all the reserve artillery of the Army had been captured. Jackson went back to the Potomac the next morning, quickly drove the enemy into the river and secured the position with slight loss of men or equipment. Gen. D. H. Hill, who worshipped Jackson almost as profoundly as did Dabney, was satisfied that the manuscript was correct in its account of the episode and in its emphasis on the importance of the service Jackson rendered. General Lee, who had Doctor Pendleton as his rector as as one of his chaplains at Washington College, felt that the artillerist's blunder had been exaggerated.

What was Doctor Dabney to do? He would not accept Lee's account as accurate; but neither he nor Mrs. Jackson would have thought for a moment of writing what the General disapproved. The conclusion was to pursue a strange course: Doctor Dabney struck out his own version of the incident and substituted that of General Lee without a word of explanation concerning the authorship, and in order that he might not assume responsibility for the general's statement, he put it in quotation marks. There it stands today on pages 577-78 of Dabney's Life and Campaigns of Lieut. Gen. Thomas J. Jackson.4

This, of course, throws light on Dabney's own convinced opinion as well as on the esteem in which General Lee was held; but it was not more than an incident in its relation to a book which is remarkable despite the pitfalls that Doctor Dabney set for himself by his inclusive and moralizing treatment. His bitterness offends; his constant assumption that the Almighty was a Southern partisan shocks the present-day reader. The essential accuracy of his book, written in a time of misery and confusion, is a tribute to his memory, his diligence and his mental capacity. Seldom is it studied nowadays, because it has been superseded by Henderson's dazzling Stonewall Jackson, but the fact is Henderson leaned so heavily on Dabney as to accept even his mistakes. As further evidence of the vigor of the mind of Dabney, it may be noted that if he had not been cited here as the first distinguished Confederate biographer, he would have deserved a place amongh those who expounded the principle of States' rights. His Defence of Virginia and the South is a powerful paper.

While Dabney's memorial to Jackson was in the press, General Lee was planning a memorial to his soldiers. In a letter of July 31, 1865, to most of his general officers, he said: "I am desirous that the bravery and devotion of the Army of Northern Virginia be correctly transmitted to posterity. This is the only tribute that can now be paid to the worth of its noble officers and soldiers." To one of his comrades he was more specific: "I shall write this history," he said, "not to vindicate myself, or to promote my own reputation. I want that the world shall know what my poor boys, with their small numbers and scant resources, succeeded in accomplishing."5 In the autumn of 1866, to fiery old Jubal Early, who was preparing his own narrative of operations, Lee wrote: "I would recommend . . . that, while giving facts which you think necessary for your own vindication, you omit all epithets or remarks calculated to excite bitterness or animosity between different sections of the country."6 What Lee desired, most of all, were official reports, returns of the Army, and similar documents that had been lost or destroyed when his records had been burned by panicky teamsters on the retreat from Petersburg.

It developed that his own letter books, which contained all except his most confidential communications to the President, had escaped the flames. General Longstreet's papers for the last months of the war were placed at his disposal. Several other officers sent in duplicates of their reports. The most valuable of these, from the standpoint of the historical investigator, were those of Gen. Cadmus M. Wilcox, to whose thoughtfulness we owe one of the few adequate reports on the siege of Petersburg. These documents General Lee supplemented with many newspaper clippings, but he must have discovered early that adequate materials for the last year of the war could not be assembled until access could be had to the Confederate archives, which had been captured and carried to Washington. Permission to use those records was denied at the time to Confederate historians. Amid his many labors at Washington College, General Lee found scant leisure to pursue the collection of papers from other sources, and, apparently, he never wrote any part of his intended narrative. He may have decided that passion still deafened the ears of the nation; he may have realized the truth could not be told without damaging the reputation of men he respected. In his fine sensitiveness of soul, he may have been deterred by the tactless suggestion that the book would be very profitable. Nothing could have been more repulsive to him than the thought of gaining in purse by relating the tragedy that had been enacted in the blood of the South's best.

Perhaps it is well that General Lee did not write his memorial of his Army. His letters how him not without skill in that type of composition. The revision he gave his military reports, which Col. Charles Marshall compiled, always added to their clarity. For sustained historical narrative, Lee had no aptitude. His introduction to his edition of his father's Revolutionary memoirs demonstrates that. More fundamentally, his character was such that he never could have brought himself to place blame where it was due. Any detailed military work from his pen would have been written in the reserved spirit of his letter to Mrs. Jackson, a propos of Dabney's mistakes, and would have raised more questions than it settled.7

Very different from anything that Lee might have written about his Army was the first conspicuous personal narrative, which, ironically enough, was not the work of a combatant but of a clerk. John Beauchamp Jones was a Baltimorean, born in 1810, who spent some of his boyhood in Kentucky and Missouri and came back to his native city in time for Poe to commend him as one who was editing the Saturday Visitor "with much judgment and general ability."8 Jones married Frances Custis, from the Eastern Shore of Virginia and doubtless a member of the same fine stock as the first husband of Mrs. George Washington. Because magazine editing was not a profitable occupation, Jones supplemented it by much writing on his own account. The list of his novels is formidable, but only his Wild Western Scenes attracted a large audience. This sold to 100,000 copies prior to the war and had the added distinction of a Confederate edition.

From Baltimore, Jones went to the vicinity of Philadelphia, where, from 1857 to the outbreak of the war, he edited the weekly Southern Monitor. He started South on April 9, 1861, journeyed to Richmond, went on to Montgomery, and came back to Richmond when the capital was moved. He had begun a diary the day before he left home. On April 29, he made this entry: "At fifty-one I can hardly follow the pursuit of arms; but I will write and preserve a diary of the revolution . . . To make my diary full and complete as possible, is now my business."9 It did not remain his exclusive business, but the diary was given authority of a sort by Jones's access to confidential records after he was made a clerk in the War Department. Through months dark or hopeful, he wrote almost daily, long entries or short, until April 19, 1865. On that date his diary ends abruptly. Apparently he went back to the Eastern Short and subsequently returned to Philadelphia to negotiate for the publication of his Rebel War Clerk's Diary.10 It was in press when, on Feb. 4, 1866, Jones breathed his last.

Gamaliel Bradford overshot the mark when he spoke of Jones as the Confederate Pepys.11 Little that was Pepysian appears in Jones's diary except for his insatiable curiosity; but much that was no less illuminating than the gossip of the Secretary of the Admiralty was recorded by the War Department Clerk. Full of absurd prejudices---even extending them to so great a man as Gen. Josiah Gorgas---Jones had a singularly large number of military incompetents among his favorites. The special, the well-nigh unique value of his diary is that it holds up a mirror to the hopes and fears of the city in which he labored. Whether Jones had this in mind when he began, it is impossible to say. Neither may one be sure that he realized the certain fame that would come to a man who set down what generals never saw and newspapers thought unworthy or report. In any event, he did this service while McClellan threatened and Grant thundered outside Richmond, and he has his reward. If not in the text, at least in the footnotes, he is more often quoted by historians than any contemporary writer on the Confederacy. He is a model for the emulation of any author who may not hope to write formal history. Reputation and the gratitude of posterity await any observant person in a center of population who will register accurately the daily comments of a few persons daily on the trend of events. The diary of such a citizen of Rome wold be prized above the lost books of Livy.

Jones serves the historian, also, on two other matters concerning which information is scant---prices and weather. He studied prices with the most intensive care, because he scarcely earned enough to keep his family alive and he tried always to be forehanded in maintaining a small reserve of provisions. From his pathetic accounts of his triumphant purchase of a peck of peas and his tragic relation of the failure of a scheme of co-operative buying in North Carolina, one has a glimpse of what the war meant in hunger and anxiety. A student of domestic science could reconstruct a surprising story of family economy from Jones's pages. It might not be Orchids on Your Budget, but it would demonstrate that thrift in the sixties was an art advanced beyond anything the domestic guides of our day have had the temerity to pronounce attainable. As for the weather, Jones frequently recorded rains or hot waves when the historians of campaigns never mentioned them.

Aside from his discountable bias and the display of occasional credulity, Jones had only one serious fault as a chronicler of life in the Confederate capital: he could not resist the temptation of posing as a prophet---after the event. A reader scarcely can blame the poor war clerk for desiring to say "I told you so," but occasionally one is provoked to discover that Jones wrote into his diary facts he could not possibly have known at the time he professes to have recorded them. In short, one has to deal with a glossed text; and, if it were worth while, one probably could identify most of the glosses and restore the original.

One this score it may be interesting to not that while there are occasional glosses in other documents and some instances of the suppression of records, Confederate historical literature is relatively free of deliberate frauds. Doctor Charles A. Graves years ago proved forgery of the letter in which General Lee is made to tell his son Custis that "duty is the sublimest word in the English language."12 The language is almost a direct steal from Kant, but the clumsy and obvious forgery may have been executed solely for his own amusement by some idle young officer who came across Lee letters in the loot of Arlington. Of course one finds endless instances where the imagination has soared with time and distance. In the case of only one writer is there reasonable suspicion of extensive forgery.

While Jones's diary was having its first reading---and not a friendly reading by Southern politicians---a number of men in different parts of the country were seeking to establish magazines that would be a depository of historical as well as of general literature. The aim seemed reasonable, but, unfortunately, all plans overlooked the poverty of the people. Gen. D. H. Hill made one of the bravest struggles with his monthly entitled The Land We love, which was published in Charlotte. The first issue bears date of May, 1866, and the last issue was for March, 1869. It is, perhaps, more important for General Hill's views on education than for the historical articles it published; but first and last it included much of Jackson from Hill's pen, and a series of articles, all too brief, by Wade Hampton. Its miscellaneous historical anecdotes were diverting if unimportant.

More remarkable in every way was the Southern Review, a quarterly which Doctor Bledsoe began soon after he completed Is Davis a Traitor? General Lee had said after the war to Bledsoe, "Doctor, you must take care of yourself; you have a great work to do; we all look to you for our vindication." Bledsoe took this perhaps more seriously than it was meant, and to his magazine he devoted immense effort. Doctor Edwin Mims states that in the average issue Doctor Bledsoe had from three to five articles, and that for one number he write all but one article, or a quarterly of about 250 pages.13 They were not superficial articles, either. Bledsoe put into nearly all of them the rich resources of his powerful mind. His was the voice of conservatism but never was it apologetic. Like a valiant rearguard his face always was to the foe. After he died in 1877, his Review expired within two years, but it had become a distinct monument to his peculiar abilities. Much of it is deadly memorial now; but occasionally, when one turns to a subject of special sacredness to Bledsoe, one feels precisely as if one were talking in the Round Church of the Templars, and a knight suddenly rose from the floor and brandished his blade.

Like Bledsoe, John Esten Cooke wrote in the ashes but not with slowly diminishing heat. He did not write for bread alone. In his devotion to Stuart and the cavalry corps he determined that the Beau Sabreur of the Confederacy should not lack his literary monument and, in 1867, he published Wearing of the Gray.14 This was a series of personal sketches of the most renowned cavalrymen of the Army of Northern Virginia. Judged photographically, some of the pictures were out of focus, but Cooke "caught" Stuart precisely as a fortunate artist now and again gets a sitter in characteristic and revelatory pose. Nothing that has been written since Cooke's day has changed a line in the laughing face of Stuart.

Cooke gave in his book an interesting example of the manner in which myths develop quickly through the uncritical acceptance of stories which recount feats on the border line of the attainable. Perhaps the three Southern generals concerning whom the most extreme stories were told during their fighting years were "Stonewall" Jackson, Bedford Forrest, and Turner Ashby. The last-named of these three, a romantic, fearless figure, with a long beard and complexion almost as dark as a Moor's, commanded Jackson's cavalry through the winter of 1861-62 and during the following spring. Ashby was not accounted a good army administrator and he insisted upon maintaining the independence of his command; but in every retreat and in all the advances of the Army of the Valley, he was closest to the enemy. His troopers regarded him as invincible, much as their companions of the "foot cavalry" thought Jackson invulnerable. In the bivouacs, a tale that credited Ashby with some superhuman feat had only to be told to be believed. After a few months there was no appeal to the modest Ashby for the verification or denial of any of his alleged exploits, because he was killed in action near Harrisonburg, June 6, 1862. Cooke must have heard from some of Ashby's troopers many a tale of the fallen officer's prowess and, in his Wearing of the Gray, he wrote down this one:

Jackson slowly retired from Winchester [in March, 1862], the cavalry under Ashby bringing up the rear, with the enemy closely pressing them. The long column defiled through the town, and Ashby remained the last, sitting his horse in the middle of Loudoun street as the Federal forces poured in. The solidary horseman,15 gazing at them with so much nonchalance, was plainly seen by the Federal officers and two mounted men were detached to make a circuit by the back streets, and cut off his retreat. Ashby either did not see this maneuver, or paid no attention to it. He waited until the Federal column was nearly upon him, and had poured a hot fire; then he turned his horse, waved his hate above his head, and uttering a cheer to defiance, galloped off. All at once, as he galloped down the street, he saw before him the two cavalrymen sent to cut off and capture him. To a man like Ashby, inwardly chafing at being compelled to retreat, no sight could be more agreeable. Here was an opportunity to vent his spleen; and charging the two mounted men he was soon upon them. One fell with a bullet through his breast; and, coming opposite the other, Ashby seized him by the throat, dragged him from the saddle, and putting spurs to his horse, bore him off. This scene, which some readers may set down for romance, was witnessed by hundreds both of the Confederates and Federal army.

To reaffirm his faith in this story, the devoted Cooke made it the subject of one of the woodcuts of his book. Ashby is seen in the act of gripping the second Federal trooper by the throat  at the instant a Union column, in most orderly array, is two doors down the street.

Actually, as recorded by Ashby's chaplain, Reverend J. B. Avirett, in a book16 which appeared the same year as Cooke's, here is what happened:

Fighting and falling back slowly, Ashby retarded the advance of the enemy until Jackson effected the evacuation of Winchester, which was completed on the night of the 11th of March. On the morning of the 12th, as the enemy continued to advance, the Confederate infantry retired by the turnpike leading up the Valley to Staunton. Skirmishing almost to the limits of the town, Ashby, as quiet as if on dress parade, followed his men down the street, and though followed closely by the enemy, coolly stopped to take a biscuit offered him by a noble-hearted lady.17

Perhaps the difference between history and myth could not be better illustrated than by the difference between a momentary pause for a biscuit and the bloody affray that Cooke had been assured hundreds of men in two armies had seen.

President Davis was not a man about whom myths gather, though Pollard and others accused him during the war of every political crime short of treason. The end of hostilities found Mr. Davis probably the most unpopular man in the wrecked Confederacy, but after he was taken to Fort Monroe, Virginia, and was put in irons, the entire South was outraged. He seemed to the Southern soldiers to be suffering vicariously for them. Forgotten speedily were all the old resentments and complaints. A prisoner, he had larger affection than he had enjoyed at any time after the winter of 1861-62.

He had this additional good fortune. The chief surgeon at Fort Monroe, and medical director of the X Army corps, was Doctor John Joseph Craven. This interesting man, born in utter poverty at Newark, N. J., in 1822, had schooled himself while working in a chemical establishment. When the magnetic telegraph was invented, Craven quit the factory and joined the crew that was constructing the first line from New York to Philadelphia. He made some of the pioneer discoveries in electrical insulation but failed to procure a patent. Turning to new adventures, he joined a party of Forty-Niners and went to California, where he had no better fortune. On his return to Newark he devoted himself to medicine and, on the outbreak of hostilities, became surgeon of a New Jersey regiment. He must have had exceptional administrative capacity, for he son was made medical director of the Department of the South and in 1864 received like appointment for a corps.

It was by the sheerest chance that this physician, simple, able, understanding and with a native antagonism to cruelty, should have been summoned to advise on the treatment of President Davis. To him Mr. Davis owed the lessened rigor of treatment and to him, no less, the South owed its first dispassionate picture of the imprisonment. Doctor Craven was mustered out of service January 27, 1866. and thereafter was free to write as he pleased. His Prison Life of Jefferson Davis appeared that year.18 Based on a diary Doctor Craven kept while at Fort Monroe and supplemented with reports of many conversations, it was an honest book. Had Doctor Craven been a Confederate himself, instead of an avowed Republican enemy of slavery, he could not have been more candid, nor could he have presented more clearly the courage, the character and the high intelligence of President Davis. He wrote while Mr. Davis still was a prisoner, but in the last paragraphs of his little volume he asked a question that may have had some influence on public opinion. These were his final words: "For the crime of treason, not one of these---not the humblest official under the late rebellion---was one whit more or less guilty than the man whom they elected their titular President; and if any other crimes can be alleged against him, in the name of justice, and for the honor of our whole country, both now and in the hereafter, are not his friends and suffering family entitled to demand that he may have an early and impartial trial as provided by the laws of our country?"19 It is pleasant to record that his fine-spirited man continued a life of generous usefulness to his death past three score and ten. No less is it pleasant to note that in the summer of 1939 the United Daughters of the Confederacy unveiled a tablet in his honor at Fort Monroe.

Mr. Davis found another early defender in Frank H. Alfriend, last editor of the famous Southern Literary Messenger.20 In 1868 Alfriend answered through his Life of Jefferson Davis the allegations of Pollard.21 It has to be admitted that Alfriend was as partial to Mr. Davis as Pollard was hostile, and that he started as many fires of controversy as he extinguished. For twenty years, Alfriend's early attempt to portray the life of the Confederate President, market as it inevitably was by errors and omissions, was considered by the critics of Mr. Davis as virtually his own apologia,22 though in actual fact the book apparently was written without the President's authorization. Only one letter from Mr. Alfriend to Mr. Davis appears in Rowland's collection23 and that bears a date long after a mournful event had changed the spirit of Confederate historical writing.


1 Philadelphia (National Publishing Co.).

2 Baltimore (Innes).

3 Cf. T. C. Johnson, Life and Letters of Robert Lewis Dabney; Richmond (The Pres. Comm. of Publication), 1903; p. 198 ff.

4 Edition of 1866, New York (Blelock).

5 J. William Jones, Personal Reminiscences of General Robert E. Lee; New York (Appleton), 1874; p. 180.

6 Ibid., p. 221.

7 A letter from Lee to Doctor A. T. Bledsoe, somewhat similar in content to that addressed Mrs. Jackson, led Gamaliel Bradford to remark: "This letter, like many others, goes far to reconcile me to the loss of the memoirs Lee did not write. I feel sure that with the best intentions in the world he would have left untold a great deal that we desire to know." Lee the American; New York (Houghton Mifflin), 1912; p. 151.

8 10 D. A. B., p. 182.

9 I J. B. Jones, Swiggett edition, New York (Old Hickory Bookshop), 1935; p. 29.

10 Philadelphia (J. B. Lippincott and Co.), 1866.

11 American Mercury, December, 1925.

12 Reports Virginia Bar Asso., 1914, pp. 176-215; 1915, pp. 299-315; 1917-18, pp. 288-291.

13 Edwin Mims, "Southern Magazines" in 7 The South in the Building of the Nation; Richmond (The Southern Publication Society), 1909-13; pp. 464-65.

14 New York (E. B. Treat & Co.).

15 Op. cit., p. 74.

16 The Memoirs of General Turner Ashby and His Compeers; Baltimore (Selby & Dulany), 1867.

17 Op. cit., pp. 155-156.

18 New York (Carleton).

19 Op. cit., 1st ed., p. 377.

20 Cf. J. W. Davidson, Living Writers of the South; New York (Carleton), 1869; p. 18.

21 Chicago (Caxton).

22 Cf. J. H. Reagan to Jefferson Davis, 7 Rowland, Jefferson Davis, Constitutionalist, Jackson, Miss (Miss. Dept. Archives and History), 1923, p. 563.

23 Ibid., p. 528.

Bogus Conclusions of “False Cause” Book: Guest Post by Historian Philip Leigh

Bogus Conclusions of “False Cause” Book:
Guest Post by Historian Philip Leigh

Published on his blog, Civil War Chat,
November 6, 2020


“No man is so blind as one who will not see.”

I am delighted to publish this outstanding guest post with video links by historian and author Philip Leigh, critiquing an interview given by College of Charleston professor Adam Domby about Domby's book, The False Cause: Fraud, Fabrication, and White Supremacy in Confederate Memory.

From 2012 to 2015, Phil Leigh contributed 24 articles to The New York Times Disunion Series, which commemorated the Sesquicentennial of the Civil War. He was one of Disunion's most frequent contributors. He is the author of seven books on the Civil War and Reconstruction including his latest, Causes of the Civil War. Visit his Civil War Chat Blog, which includes almost a decade of in-depth articles on history, and history in today's silly woke world, as well as videos he has produced to go along with his written articles. Also visit his Amazon Author Page.

1. Link to Domby’s interview with the Avery Research Center June 16, 2020.

2. Link to Phil Leigh's YouTube video November 5, 2020 entitled False Conclusions of Adam Domby's *False Cause* Book.

From Phil Leigh

While watching a seventy-minute interview with Professor Adam Domby about his book, The False Cause, I was surprised at the number of errors, biased interpretations and even endorsement of “extralegal” conduct by anti-statue mobs. The False Cause focuses on Civil War and Reconstruction memory, particularly involving Confederate memorials.

First, and foremost, Domby erroneously proclaims that the signature Confederate statues erected in Southern courthouse squares between 1900 and 1920 were chiefly installed to celebrate white supremacy. In truth, they were erected because the old soldiers were fading away. The typical surviving Confederate veteran was aged 60 in 1900 and 80 in 1920. Moreover, memorials for both Federal and Confederate soldiers surged during the war’s semicentennial from 1911 to 1915. Additionally, prior to 1900 the postbellum South was too poor to fund many memorials. Even in 1900 the region’s per capita income was only half the national average. Finally, after the sons of Confederate veterans eagerly joined the military to help win the 1898 Spanish-American War, Union veterans realized that their former rivals were also Americans who deserved their own memorials.

Second, Domby wrongly singles-out Southerners as racist without mentioning Northern racism. Consider, for example, the widespread obsession with defeating black heavyweight boxing champion Jack Johnson.

Johnson became the first black to hold the title in 1908. Since most white boxing fans were outraged that a black had become champion, promoters searched for a white boxer to beat Johnson. In 1910 they matched him against previous champion Jim Jeffries who had earlier retired undefeated. San Francisco novelist Jack London had summoned The Great White Hope, “Jim Jeffries must now emerge from his Alfalfa farm and remove that golden smile from Jack Johnson’s face. Jeff, it’s up to you. The White Man must be rescued.”

The bout attracted unprecedented attention. Led by The New York Times, the mainstream press was hostile toward blacks: “If the black man wins, thousands and thousands of his ignorant brothers will misinterpret his victory as justifying claims to much more than mere physical equality with their white neighbors.” After Johnson won the fight, race riots erupted in New York, Washington, Pittsburgh, Philadelphia, Los Angeles, Omaha, Columbus, St. Louis and Wilmington, Delaware.

It took boxing promoters another five years to find a white fighter, Jess Willard, to beat the aging Johnson in 1915. When his victory was displayed on a bulletin board updated by telegraph in New York’s financial district the roar from the streets “would have done credit to a Presidential victory,” according to the New York Tribune. “For a moment the air was filled with hats and newspapers. Respectable businessmen pounded their unknown neighbors on the back” and acted like gleeful children.

Third, Domby sarcastically disparages the fighting qualities of the Confederate soldier. He suggests that the Civil War would have lasted far longer than four years if Southern warriors were any good. He’s merely repeating a common but flawed analysis taught by academics. America’s Revolutionary War, they argue, lasted eight years, which was twice as long as the Civil War. But that remark overlooks the relative casualties.

Soldier deaths during the Revolutionary War totaled 25,000, which was 1% of the population. In contrast, at least 300,000 Confederate soldiers died during the Civil War, which was about 5% of the available white population. (Assuming a larger 400,000 Northern soldiers died during the Civil War their loss ratio would have been only 1.8%.) Thus, the Confederate death ratio was five times the rate of the Revolutionary War in half the time. Such casualties were unsustainable. If America were to engage in a war today and endure the same proportional losses, the number of dead soldiers would total nearly 17 million.

Fourth, to support his assertion that Confederate statues are “all about” white supremacy Domby referred to businessman Julian Carr’s speech at the 1913 Silent Sam statue dedication at North Carolina University. Carr notoriously boasted of whipping a black woman shortly after the War as punishment for insulting a white woman. In the telling of the story Domby makes a number of ommissions and misrepresentations.

First, his claim that Carr was the most prominent speaker is dubious. There were five others including the state’s governor and the university’s president. None made racist remarks, nor are there any such words engraved into the statue.

Second, although the nineteen-year-old Carr’s racist incident is indefensible, Domby fails to explain that he later became a major benefactor to blacks. His was among the first Southern textile mills to employ blacks in production work as opposed to maintenance. His donations to black education included the North Carolina College for Negroes, presently known as North Carolina Central University (NCCU). The school’s black founder praised Carr:

I have never known the first time for him to fail to give to any enterprise which he thought would benefit the colored people or to lend his influence in their behalf. . . I have known scores and scores of colored people who were the recipients of his kindness and generosity. . . I have never known a colored person too poor or ignorant who went to General Carr for assistance who did not receive the same.

Third, Carr also helped black educator William Gaston Pearson who was born a slave in 1858 and worked as a youth at the Carr Factory. Carr recognized his potential and financed his education at Shaw University where Pearson graduated in 1886 at age 28. Thereafter, Pearson began teaching in Durham. In 1922 he became principal of Durham’s Hillside Park High School. In 1931, Hillside was accredited by the Southern Association of Secondary School and Colleges, a major achievement for a black high school during the Great Depression. Pearson also made other business, religious, and educational contributions to the Durham community.

Even if, for purposes of argument, it is assumed that Southerners seceded for slavery, it is not the reason they fought. The North could have let the first seven cotton states secede in peace but instead chose to coerce them back into the Union. Thus, they fought to protect their homeland from invasion. As historian William C. Davis put it,

The widespread Northern myth that Confederates went to the battlefield to perpetuate slavery is just that, a myth. Their letters and diaries, in the tens of thousands, reveal again and again that they fought because their Southern homeland was invaded. . .

Fifth, Domby excuses such present acts as mob destruction of Confederate memorials by explaining that any laws protecting them justify that opponents use so-called extra-legal means to demolish them. Since “extra-legal” is merely a euphemism for illegal, Domby’s argument is the same as the one the Ku Klux Klan used. The Klan argued their extra-legal conduct was necessitated by the ironclad control of the voting apparatus of Carpetbag regimes. Even though he condemned the KKK, South Carolina’s last Carpetbag governor (Daniel Chamberlain) considered it a predictable result:

No excuse can be framed for its outrages, but its causes were plain . . . It flourished where corruption . . . had climbed into power and withered where the reverse was the case. What is certain is that a people of force, pride, and intelligence [when] driven to choose between [temporary] violence and lawlessness and [permanent] misrule will infallibly choose the former.

In his farewell address to the Massachusetts legislature in January 1866, Republican Governor John Andrew warned that Reconstruction should require no humiliation in the South and that it should ally with “the natural leaders” of the region. He prophetically explained that if such men were not taken in as friends, they would resume their leadership as enemies. Republican Reconstruction architects Thaddeus Stevens and Oliver Morton ignored Andrew’s advice.

Chamberlain ultimately concluded that Radical Reconstruction was born of sinister motives, cruelly exploited Southern blacks and was destined to die of its own inadequacies. In retrospect he was certain "there was no possibility of securing good government in South Carolina through Republican influences. . . The vast preponderance of ignorance . . . in that party, aside from downright dishonesty, made it impossible.” The blacks, he felt, were egregiously abused. “Race was used as the tool of heartless partisan leaders.” Blacks were “mercilessly exploited for the benefit of a political [Republican] party, and heartlessly abandoned when the scheme had failed.”

Sixth, Domby makes the common mistake of citing the Declaration of Causes for secession of such states as Mississippi and South Carolina as so-called proof that the Civil War was all about slavery. Yet he ignores the sectional conflicts that are revealed by comparing the constitutions of the CSA and USA.

Unlike the Federal Constitution, the Confederacy’s did not permit protective tariffs. Southerners were ahead of their time in recognizing the benefits of Worldwide free trade. They also outlawed public works spending, which were instead to be financed by the states themselves. Since Southerners disliked crony capitalism their constitution prohibited subsidies for private industry, which were arguably allowed under the “general welfare” clause of the Federal Constitution.

The Confederate Constitution only permitted spending for military defense, repayment of national debt, and the operating costs of the Central Government, not pork barrel spending. In order to further discourage pork spending the President was given a line item veto and bills were normally introduced to Congress by the executive branch. If Congress originated a bill it would need a two-thirds majority to pass as opposed to a simple majority for one proposed by the President. Although her constitution authorized one, the Confederacy never formed a Supreme Court. As a creature of the Federal Government, Confederate leaders, their parents and ancestors had observed that the U. S. Supreme Court tended to make rulings that increasingly concentrated power in the Central Government, which was contrary to the South’s tradition favoring states’ rights.

Seventh, even though Domby states, “Anytime you have someone trying to prevent a topic from being debated, it is a sign they are on the losing side” he never responded to my request to be interviewed on this YouTube channel.

In sum, Domby’s interview by the Avery Research Center suggests that his research merely follows the predetermined conclusion of cloistered academics regarding the reasons for Confederate memorials. Presumably his only purpose was to find evidence that the statues were erected to celebrate and enforce white supremacy, particularly up to 1920. But given the wartime loss ratios noted earlier, only a cynic could reach such a conclusion. To repeat for emphasis, if America were to fight a war today with the same loss ratio as the Confederates, our soldier deaths would total about 17 million. Nobody can doubt that 30 years later the families would badly want to build memorials to both the dead and survivors before they faded away.

Thank You Phil Leigh!

The Massive Election Fraud of 2020 Can Not Stand

The Massive Election Fraud of 2020
Can Not Stand

by Gene Kizer, Jr.


No Republican will ever win another election if things stay as they are now.

Democrats have discovered the perfect way to "win" every election from now on.

They don't need to pack the Supreme Court.

They don't need to make Puerto Rico and DC states.

They don't need to open the southern border.

They don't even need Antifa and Black Lives Matter in the street.

All they have to do is what they are doing right this minute: Continue with massive mail-in voting. Then make it permanent.

Send ballots to everybody even if they didn't request one, so whoever gets it can vote, regardless of whether they are the registered voter.

Never allow voter rolls to be cleaned up so dead people, and people who have moved, can keep voting.

Get rid of the signature-match and postmark requirements so you can submit as many ballots as you need.

Enable counting for days after election day so you can add votes where necessary, and do not, under any circumstances, let the other party observe anything even though they have a legal right to do so.

There is strong direct evidence documented by hundreds of affidavits and overwhelming circumstantial evidence that voter fraud is occurring. If Democrats were not cheating in places like Philadelphia and Detroit, they would want the other party to observe.

Instead, they cover up windows in counting places and ignore the law and court orders that require them to allow Republicans to observe the counting.

It only takes a few corrupt places to win an election through vote fraud. Philly, Detroit, Atlanta, Milwaukee. There's four right there. Philadelphia is renowned for it's election fraud.

There is no doubt that massive election fraud has taken place and it has been coordinated. These are the same ruthless, corrupt people who gave us two coups d'etat that resulted in the Russia Hoax that President Trump had to deal with for three years, and a political impeachment based on a perfect phone call about Biden's influence peddling, which we now know was true thanks to Hunter Biden's laptop.

Think about how compromised Joe Biden is in dealing with China, thanks to his and Hunter's influence pedding, and Iran, with the nuclear deal in which Joe Biden and Obama guaranteed the world's largest exporter of terrorism a nuclear bomb and billions of dollars in cash to spread their terrorism all over the world.

Attorney General Barr should appoint a special counsel right now to look into Biden's well-documented influence peddling. Investigations are underway but this requires a special council like Mueller with an unlimited budget.

However, one won't be appointed because Republicans never play to win the way Democrats do. That's why Durham didn't announce anything, before the election, about his investigation of the first coup d'etat; and now, he will be shut down.

Obama and Biden, with their blessings, gave ISIS a caliphate.

Trump destroyed all that, but it will now be revived.

Think about Brett Kavanaugh's confirmation and Diane Feinstein holding Blasey Ford's false accusations until just before the vote, which is a popular Democrat technique. These people are the sleaziest but they play to win, and usually do, like now.

Feinstein's husband, Richard C. Blum, is a part owner of the voting machine company, Dominion Voting Systems, used widely across the country and in all the battleground states. It was developed with money from the Clinton Global Initiative. James Howard Kunstler observes:

Then there are the janky numbers in all those other states where the Dominion vote tabulation software was used: 130,000 here… 27,000 there… et cetera. By the way, the company that puts out this Dominion product is partly owned by Democratic Senator Dianne Feinstein’s husband, Richard C. Blum; one of its top executives is Nancy Pelosi’s former chief-of-staff; and the software’s development was funded by the Clinton Global Initiative in 2014. I guess they know a good thing when it jumps up and bites them on the lips.1

Software glitches in systems using Dominion Voting Systems software shifted thousands of votes from Trump to Biden in Georgia and Pennsylvania. In Georgia, software updates were done the night before the election, which is unheard of.

The errors were supposedly corrected but how many hundreds of other places around the country did not catch them and correct them? There should be a full scale investigation of voting machine fraud and specifically Dominion Voting Systems, which starts out suspect due to its ties to Diane Feinstein, Pelosi, and the Clinton Global Initiative.

Kunstler also notes the method used by the CIA to interfere in elections of other countries. He writes:

I supposed you've also seen rumors about the Intelligence Community's election-meddling software programs, HAMR ("Hammer") and Scorecard allegedly being employed in last week's election, but that is only a rumor so far. Sidney Powell, lawyer to General Michael Flynn, dropped it on the airwaves, and recall that General Flynn was the Director of the DIA (Defense Intelligence Agency), so there's a chance that he knows about these programs in excruciating detail. There's also reason to believe that General Flynn retains connections to many loyal intel techies who worked under him, and are capable of sussing out the situation. Also, by the way: do you suppose that any of this election-medding software was used to ensure Joe Biden's mysterious out-of-nowhere victory in the Super-Tuesday primary? Hmmm. . . .? 2

Trump was on a fast track to reelection with a booming economy and foreign policy wins all over the world.

Then COVID-19 hit and gave Democrats their chance with mail-in ballot fraud, which enabled them to manufacture thousands of ballots, whatever they needed.

They knew they had one chance to negate everything Trump has done to Make America Great Again and they were not going to lose it. They were going for it, like they did with Obama's corruption of the FBI and CIA, the spying on Trump's campaign, the Russia Hoax and three-year Mueller investigation.

Now, if this election stands, there is no limit on Democrat deep state corruption and power.

The worst thing is the end of all the investigations such as John Durham's, so now Democrats and a corrupt FBI will get clean away with a coup d'etat to spy on and remove a duly elected American president.

There's a good chance Eric Holder will be back in charge of the Justice Department and he will take care of Jim Comey and his other Democrat allies.

Donald Trump, Jr. has been encouraging his father to declassify everything related to the ongoing investigations to get it all out there, and that definitely should be done.

Another horrible thing for America is that Big Tech - Google, Facebook, Twitter, et al. - will get away completely with destroying free speech for half the country. We will now be 100% under Big Tech's control. Everything we say or think now has to be approved by Google, Facebook and Twitter, and that will get worse.

With their monopoly power they are more like public utilities who should not be allowed to censor and discriminate against anybody but they do brazenly. Imagine other public utilities discriminating against citizens. What if the power company decided to cut off your power because you are a MAGA supporter to teach you a lesson and make an example out of you to scare others.

No public utility should be able to discriminate like Google, Facebook, Twitter, et al. discriminate.

Big Tech and the corrupt mainstream news media have total control of America now.

If Republicans are truly out of power, then there will be no way to break up those monopolies and restore our freedom of speech and thought.

Think about Twitter censoring the president of the United States who was tweeting the legitimate New York Post story of Tony Bobulinski's credible testimony against Hunter and Joe Biden in order to defend his personal honor.

Republicans let us down like they always do.

That is the refreshing thing about President Trump. He fights, and fights hard, and wants to pay back people who wrong him. There is something so honest and gratifying about that.

Republicans like Mitt Romey, a/k/a Pierre Dilecto, never fight hard. They are the first to buckle because they want to be liked by the corrupt news media, but President Trump called out the media over and over. That's why they hate him. That, and the fact that he has been effective in spite of their constant attempts to destroy him.

President Trump is not the enemy of democracy but the mainstream news media is. They and Big Tech hide information Americans need because it helps the Democrat Party, information like the Bobulinski interview of October 22, 2020 shown at and Hunter Biden's laptop reports from the New York Post, which show clearly Joe Biden's illegal influence peddling, and the money he and Hunter made with the Chinese Communists, the Ukrainians, and others.

Sidney Powell, former federal prosecutor and current lawyer for Lt. Gen. Michael Flynn, said on Nov. 8th that top Democrats are using the aforementioned Dominion Voting Systems to commit election fraud:

They have invested in it for their own reasons and are using it to commit this fraud to steal votes. I think they've even stolen them from other Democrats in their own party who should be outraged about this also.4

She said Dominion has about a third of the voting machine market with customers in 28 states and Puerto Rico "including all of the battleground states."

In a Fox News interview with Maria Bartiromo Sunday, November 8, Powell said:

There has been a massive and coordinated effort to steal this election from We The People of the United States of America to delegitimize and destroy votes for Donald Trump. To manufacture votes for Joe Biden. They've done it in every way imaginable, from having dead people vote in record numbers, to absolutely fraudulently creating ballots that exist only for voting for Biden.

She goes on:

We've identified over 450,000 ballots that miraculously only have a vote for Joe Biden on them and no other candidate. If you look at Florida where things were done right you can see that that is how the rest of the country should have gone. But they also used an algorithm to calculate the number of votes they would need to flip. And they used computers to flip those votes from Trump to Biden and from other Republican candidates to their competitors also.5

Here's the Sidney Powell video:

Statistical analysis shows that Biden votes far exceed Democrat down-ticket votes making those votes statistically improbable.

In a Pamela Geller article entitled "MORE PROOF OF FRAUD: Republicans Won 28 or 29 Most Competitive House Seats, Added 3 State Legislatures, Did Not Lose a Single House Race - But Joe Biden Won!!?", Maria Bartiromo interviewed Republican Minority Leader Kevin McCarthy who told her "Republicans won 28 or 29 of the most competitive US House seats. Republicans did not lose one single House seat! The Republicans also took control of three more state [legislatures]."6

The mathematical evidence of voter fraud is overwhelming. It is convincingly laid out in an article with information from MIL-OPS, "a Defense Department site approved for discussion among military officers and military retirees with appropriate military specialities." It goes into great detail with charts and graphs and explanations of things like Benford's Law.

The article title is "Overall Multi-State Data: Mathematical Evidence"7 and it was posted by Pamela Geller November 8, 2020, and notes from The Gateway Pundit, "Voter Fraud in Wisconsin - Massive Dump of Over 100,000 Ballots for Biden All the Sudden Appear Overnight."

It also states under heading Mathematical Evidence, subheading Statistical Impossibilities in Wisconsin and Michigan, November 5, 2020:

In both Michigan and Wisconsin, several vote dumps occurred at approximately 4am on Wednesday morning, which showed that Joe Biden received almost 100 percent of the votes. President Trump was leading by hundreds of thousands of votes in both states as America went to sleep, and turnout in the state of Wisconsin seems to be particularly impossible.

The usual explanation of the corrupt media is that most of the mail-in ballots came from Biden supporters but that can not be true:

This is particularly concerning considering Republicans led in mail-in ballots requested and mail-in and in-person ballots returned leading up to and at the start of election day.

According to NBC News on election day before the polls opened, in Michigan, Republicans led 41% to 39% in Mail-in Ballots requested. Republicans also led 42% to 39% with Mail-in and in-person ballots returned.

In Wisconsin on election day before the polls opened, Republicans led Mail-in Ballots requested 43% to 35%, and Mail-in and early in-person ballots returned 43% to 35%. Almost ALL of the ballots found, while most in the country were sleeping, after the officials stated they would stop counting, were for Joe Biden.

Under subheading Former Politicians of Blue Cities Chime In, Rod Blagojevich, former corrupt governor of Illinois who was sentenced to 14 years in prison but pardoned by President Trump several years into his sentence, says there is no question what went on in Philadelphia, Milwaukee, Detroit and other cities:

In big cities where they control the political apparatus and they control the apparatus that counts the votes, and they control the polling places and the ones who count the votes, it's widespread and it's deep . . .

In "How They Stole the Election" by Vasko Kohlmayer, November 9, 2020, he writes:

It was a combination of vote harvesting and fraud that Biden has come out on top. In some areas of Wisconsin, turnout for Biden was nearly 90 percent. One analyst pointed out that this is 5.5 standard deviations above the average. Such a thing is not practically possible given that the odds against it are 1 in 52,910,052. It is like flipping a coin and getting heads twenty-five times in a row.8

It is now obvious that the presidential election of 2020 has been stolen by massive fraud and corruption by the same people who have given us two coups d'etat in the past four years, and it can not stand.

A Republican fundraiser, Bill White, has put together a reward of $1 million dollars "for evidence of voter fraud." He has already raised over $14 million dollars:

White is based in Atlanta, where the Trump campaign has dispatched dozens of lawyers for a narrowly contested vote count led by Republican Rep. Doug Collins. He said Atlanta's Trump campaign and GOP headquarters have received 'literally hundreds of calls' reporting fraud since the election.9

Texas Lt. Gov. Dan Patrick also "will pay up to $1 million 'to incentivize, encourage and reward people to come forward and report voter fraud.'"10

People who have evidence that leads to an arrest and conviction will get a guaranteed payout of $25,000.11

To report election fraud, call President Trump's hotline at (888) 503-3526 or go online and report it at:

We have to have faith in the integrity of our elections or we don't have a country.

These charges have to be thoroughly investigated.

The only thing that will satisfy me is a manual vote count in Philadelphia, Detroit, Milwaukee, Atlanta and other places where fraud is highly suspected.

Republicans and Democrats together need to look at EVERY SINGLE BALLOT that was cast, and count only clearly legitimate ballots.

If that is done, and President Trump loses, I will accept that we lost a fair fight and I will continue to have faith in our wonderful country.

But if fraud is proven, then people need to go to jail jail jail. Something on the scope of what is obviously happening now is so destabilizing for our country that it should be considered treasonous and people be executed for it. That should be the law.

This kind of corruption can not stand. The gauntlet is down. The good guys have to win this fight because who the hell wants to live in a banana republic where your elections can be stolen by the lowest scum of society.

It angers me greatly that they have done this to our magnificent country.

Failure to root out this fraud and hold people accountable is not an option.


1 "Fore!" by James Howard Kunstler, November 9, 2020,, accessed 11/11/20.

2 Ibid.

3 Tony Bobulinski Statement on Hunter Biden, October 22, 2020: "Tony Bobulinski, a former business associate of Hunter Biden, son of former Vice President Joe Biden, made a statement about business dealings in China. He said he would turn over electronic evidence of Biden family involvement.", accessed 11/11/20.

4 "Sidney Powell: People with links to powerful Democrats using Dominion voting machines to 'steal' votes", by Joseph Simonson, Political Reporter & Daniel Chaitin, Breaking News Editor, November 8, 2020,, accessed 11/11/20.

5 Ibid.

6 "MORE PROOF OF FRAUD: Republicans Won 28 or 29 Most Competitive House Seats, Added 3 State Legislatures, Did Not Lose a Single House Race - But Joe Biden Won!!?" by Jim Hoft, Gateway Pundit, November 8, 2020, in The Geller Report,, accessed 11/11/20.

7 "Overall Multi-State Data: Mathematical Evidence", posted by Pamela Geller November 8, 2020,, accessed 11/11/20.

8 "How They Stole the Election" by Vasko Kohlmayer, November 9, 2020, in,, accessed 11/11/20.

9 "Top Trump bundler offers $1M reward for evidence of voter fraud" by Katherine Doyle, White House Correspondent, November 10, 2020,, accessed 11/11/20.

10 "Texas lieutenant governor offers $1 million for reports about voter fraud in 2020 election" By Mark Moore, November 11, 2020,, accessed 11/11/20.

11 Ibid.

Our Confederate Ancestors: Running the Yankee Blockade: A Daring Daytime Run by the Little Hattie

A Series on the Daring Exploits of Our Confederate Ancestors in the War Between the States.
Blockade-runner mail to New Orleans via Nassau, Bahamas, stamped incoming ship 10-cents postage due.
Blockade-runner mail to New Orleans via Nassau, Bahamas, stamped incoming ship 10-cents postage due.
Running the Yankee Blockade:
A Daring Daytime Run by the Little Hattie

From Confederate Veteran magazine,
Volume VI. , No. 5, May, 1898, original title
"Incidents in Blockade-Running"

Signal-Officer Daniel Shepherd Stevenson has written for the archives of the Daughters of the Confederacy at Wilmington, N. C., a sketch, from which the following is taken:

In the soft, mild days of October, 1864, while we lingered at our cottage by the sea, on Confederate Point, I witnessed the most exciting and most interesting scene of my life. It was during dark nights that blockade-runners always made their trips, and the bar was shelled whenever one was expected. The "Little Hattie," a blockade-runner, on which my nephew, D. S. Stevenson, was signal-officer, was expected, and the bar was vigorously shelled each night to keep the blockading fleet at a safe distance.

The SS Banshee. The Little Hattie probably looked like this.
The SS Banshee. The Little Hattie probably looked like this.

Capt. Lebby, a dashing young South Carolinian, commander of the "Little Hattie," had ordered the fires banked just at the dawning of the day, as they neared Cape Lookout, intending to wait until the next night, when he would run down the coast and come in through New Inlet at Fort Fisher; but before the order could be carried into effect he saw, by the movement on the Yankee fleet stationed off Cape Lookout, that his vessel had been discovered.

Immediately he rescinded the command, and, turning to Lieut. Clancey, first mate, and to Dan, said: "They see us, and I am afraid we shall be captured, but we will give them a lively race for it." Then, turning to one of the men, he said: "Tell the engineer to crowd on the steam, have the fireman to feed the furnace with Nassau bacon, and we will make this run in broad daylight."

The Captain then directed Clancey to run up the "fox and chicken" (the private flag of the "Little Hattie"), throw out the stars and bars, and fling to the breeze every inch of bunting on board, saying: "If we must die, we will die game."

Ft. Fisher & Cape Fear Riv to Wilmington Jan. 1865. The Florie & Little Hattie went this way earlier.
Ft. Fisher & Cape Fear Riv to Wilmington Jan. 1865. The Florie & Little Hattie went this way earlier.

The fires on the Yankee fleet had been banked before the "Little Hattie" was sighted, and it took some time to clear out the furnaces and raise steam. Thus the "Little Hattie" had some start of her enemies, and well she responded to her extra steam. Young Stevenson said that to his anxious mind it seemed that at every pulsation of her great iron heart her tough oaken sinews would quiver as though instinct with life, and she seemed to leap out of the water. Eight blockading steamers joined in the chase, and kept up a murderous shower of shot and shell.

The foregoing my nephew told me; what follows I witnessed.

About nine o'clock on that lovely October morning, when all nature smiled so kindly upon our war-desolated land, a courier rode up to our front door and shouted: "There is a blockade-runner coming this way and she looks like the 'Little Hattie.'" The "Little Hattie" had two smoke-stacks.

I sprang to my feet, took some powerful field-glasses belonging to Maj. James M. Stevenson, stepped out on the roof of the porch facing the ocean, and looked. Sure enough, it was the "Little Hattie," and, to my horror, I saw a figure on the paddle-box whom I knew to be Dan, with flag in hand, signaling to the fort.

Sea Face at Fort Fisher.
Sea Face at Fort Fisher.
The grounds inside Fort Fisher.
The grounds inside Fort Fisher.

The agonizing suspense of his mother could find vent only in prayer, and at a window looking toward the sea she knelt and supplicated the Throne of Mercy for her boy and his companions in danger. The shrill screeching of shot and shell was agonizing.

Onward dashed the frail little craft with eight United States steamers following close in her wake, pouring a relentless iron hail after her.

When she came near the fort the thirteen ships stationed off the mouth of the Cape Fear River joined in the fray, but He who "marks the sparrow's fall" covered her with his hand, and not one of the death-bearing messengers touched the little boat.

The guns of the fort were manned, and shot and shell, grape and canister, both hot and cold, belched forth from the iron throats of Parrot, Columbiad, Whitworth, and mortar. This was done to prevent the fleet from forming on the bar and intercepting the entrance of the "Little Hattie."

Columbiad inside Ft. Fisher with damaged muzzle, Jan. 1865.
Columbiad inside Ft. Fisher with damaged muzzle, Jan. 1865.

For nearly an hour I stood on the roof watching the exciting race, and when the "Little Hattie" came near enough to discern features, I recognized Capt. Lebby with his trumpet, Lieut. Clancey, with his spy-glass, and Dan, still standing on the paddle-box with his flag, which, having served its purpose for the time, rested idly in his hand.

Thus, at ten o'clock that cloudless October day, there was accomplished the most miraculous feat: a successful run of the blockade by daylight.

I give another incident in the blockading career of Signal-Officer Stevenson as received form him:

On the night of December 24, 1864, the same fatal year, the whole attacking fleet was lying before the fort when the "Little Hattie" came on her return trip. As they saw the congregated lights on the one side and the one lone light on the other, Capt. Lebby remarked that they had made the wrong inlet, and would have to come in on the high tide between Smithville and Bald Head, as they had passed Fort Fisher.

"No, Captain," said young Stevenson; "we have not passed Fort Fisher. The many lights you call Smithville is the Yankee fleet, and the one light you call Bald Head is Fort Fisher Mound light."

Union attack on Fort Fisher Dec., 1864. The Little Hattie ran through this fleet at night.
Union attack on Fort Fisher Dec., 1864. The Little Hattie ran through this fleet at night.

The captain and Lietu. Clancey laughed at him and pushed on, but he proved to be right. Fortunately, the night was very dark, and so many vessels were grouped together that one more was not noticed by the enemy. Before the officers of the "Little Hattie" were aware of it, they were in the midst of the fleet which bore Butler's expedition against the fort.

Consternation seized them. Escape seemed impossible. But they had a trusty and fully competent pilot on board, Capt. Bob Grissom, who took his stand at the wheel-house, and Dan, at the word of command, mounted the paddle-box with his lantern, and signaled to the fort to let up the shelling until they could get in.

J. C. Stevenson, his brother, who was also a signal-operator, and on duty that night, reported that the "Little Hattie" was at the bar and asked that the shelling be stopped to let her in.

A test question was flashed to the boy on board, which, of course, he answered correctly, and the shelling ceased.

In and out the little craft wound among the vessels of the Yankee fleet so close at times that young Stevenson, as he stood on the paddle-box, could hear the officers as they gave commands, and see the men executing them; but again they were shielded "in the hollow of His hand," and again made an almost miraculous escape. The next morning, December 25, as the fleet was shelling the fort, the "Little Hattie" steamed up to Wilmington and Dan walked in and gave us his perilous experience of the night before.

All know that the first expedition against Fort Fisher was unsuccessful, and when the siege was raised, the "Little Hattie" left this port, never to return.

How well I remember the last time I saw Capt. Lebby! I had been down the street, and had met and walked a few yards with him, bidding him good-by, for he was to sail in a few hours.

I crossed the street, and he called to me, and when I turned, he stood with hat in hand, making one of his most courtly bows, and said: "You and your sister must not forget the 'Little Hattie' at night and morning."

We never did, until we knew that the dainty little craft and her perilous trips were ended.

The beautiful, tranquil beach at Fort Fisher today.
The beautiful, tranquil beach at Fort Fisher today.

Publisher's Note: Some paragraphs were broken up to make reading online easier but, otherwise, the article is verbatim. No words were changed.

We Can Win a Total Victory in This War on Southern History: Three Things Are Key

We Can Win a Total Victory in This War
on Southern History: Three Things Are Key

by Gene Kizer, Jr.

Our enemies are intent on destroying every last vestige of Southern history.

We are up against opportunistic people who know little about real history. They gain politically by agitating against an invented Southern history.

They are bullies who know their hatred and violence will get them what they want from cowardly mayors and city councilmen and women. They know the disgraceful press will not question them and risk being called a racist.

They are more about a shakedown that will put money in their pockets as proclaimed by Nikole Hanna-Jones of the New York Times's historical fraud, the 1619 Project. It's all about reparations says Hanna-Jones.

The New York Times and Hanna-Jones are proud of the violence, destruction, and murders that occurred in the wake of George Floyd's death. She admitted she was proud to call the riots the 1619 riots.

Here is what we are up against.

These are the tactics that must be understood and defeated. This comes from a recent Southern Poverty Law Center newsletter bragging that since George Floyd's death May 25, 2020 over 100 Confederate monuments have been removed.

“Confederate symbols revere a secessionist army that fought to preserve the institutions of slavery and white supremacy,” said SPLC Chief of Staff Lecia Brooks. “They are painful monuments to anti-Black racism that have no place in public spaces. The removal of these symbols sends a powerful message: For our nation to heal, we cannot tolerate Confederate symbols that honor and mythologize a cruel, hateful past.”

In 2015, the murder of nine Black worshipers at an AME church by a white supremacist sparked a nationwide movement to remove Confederate monuments, flags and other symbols from public spaces. In response, the SPLC created Whose Heritage?, a project dedicated to creating a comprehensive database of Confederate symbols on public lands. For the past four years, Whose Heritage? has tracked the removal and relocation of these Confederate symbols, and the data shows we’re making strong progress. But, despite the fastest pace of removal we’ve seen yet, nearly 1,800 remain at courthouses, schools, parks, roads and other public spaces. [SPLC emphasis.]

The SPLC's "history" is invented by political agitators whose stock and trade is hate.

They could never understand that race relations, despite slavery, were better in the antebellum South than anywhere in the country according to credible observers like Alexis de Tocqueville in Democracy in America.

Jim Crow started in the North and was there a long time before moving South after Reconstruction.

America is not a racist country.

We have had a two-term black president, regardless of the fact that he was the worst president in American history.

It appears his vice president, Joe Biden, is worst than him.

Biden has been selling influence to regimes like the Communist Chinese for decades. Tony Bobulinski likely proves it as detailed in recent New York Post stories such as October 27, 2020's "Hunter Biden emails: Tony Bobulinski says he was warned, 'You're just going to bury all of us".1

Nobody except the left cares about skin color. I am proud of my black Confederate brothers and the blacks who fought for the South, and it is we who demand respect for them.

I hate to shock the South haters but black people fought for the South in many capacities including as soldiers. Black loyalty to the Confederacy shocked Yankees at first, just as it shocks liberals today.

The following comes from an article in VDare by historian and author Mike Scruggs entitled "The Black Soldiers of the Confederacy."2 He writes that "The Northern Exchange angrily editorialized about blacks after First Manassas:"

The war has dispelled one delusion of the abolitionists. The Negroes regard them as enemies instead of friends.  No insurrection has occurred in the South—no important stampede of slaves has evinced their desire for freedom.  On the contrary, they have jeered at and insulted our troops, have readily enlisted in the rebel army and on Sunday at Manassas, shot down our men with as much alacrity as if abolitionism had never existed.
[Indiana State Sentinel, Volume 21, Number 10, Indianapolis, Marion County, July 31, 1861.]

Scruggs goes on "In 1863, Horace Greeley, the famous abolitionist and founder and editor of the New York Tribune, argued that Lincoln should enlist black soldiers to fight because the South had done so:"

For more than two years, Negroes have been extensively employed in belligerent operations by the Confederacy. They have been embodied and drilled as rebel soldiers and had paraded with white troops at a time when this would not have been tolerated in the armies of the Union.
[The Politically Incorrect Guide to The South: (And Why It Will Rise Again), by Clint Johnson]

Scruggs continues, "In September 1861, former slave Frederick Douglass, wrote down what he told President Abraham Lincoln about black Confederates:"

There are at the present moment, many colored men in the Confederate Army doing duty not as cooks, servants and laborers, but as real soldiers, having muskets on their shoulders and bullets in their pockets ready to shoot down loyal troops and do all that soldiers may do to destroy the Federal government.
[Frederick Douglass and the “Negro Regiment” at First Manassas, Dead Confederates, July 30, 2011]

None of that matters to those who make millions promoting hatred and destroying American history. They are "trained Marxists" who know that violence, political correctness, cancel culture, and the false charge of racism will cow most people today, especially gutless, cowardly mayors and city councilmen and women nationwide, the overwhelming majority of whom are Democrats.

Here are the highly effective tactics of the SPLC from that same October newsletter, and following that is how we can defeat them.

What can you do today to help remove Confederate symbols?

With almost 1,800 public Confederate symbols still standing, will you commit to researching symbols around you? Across the country, citizen-driven campaigns have risen from the ground up to remove symbols that distort and lionize the shameful history of the Confederacy. Our Confederate symbols map can help you find out if there are any in your community. The Whose Heritage? Action Guide provides information about the next steps you can take after identifying a symbol you want to see removed.

Here are the first steps:

Research the symbol. Use public records and newspaper reports to get more information about the origin and the motivation behind it.

Map the path to change. Find out what governmental body is responsible for overseeing or maintaining the display and identify the process for removal.

Organize and raise awareness. Demonstrating public support for removing the symbol can help you persuade policymakers or officials to work towards removing it.

Check out our Action Guide for detailed tips and information about the entire removal process, from start to finish. If you know of a Confederate symbol in your area that is not listed in Whose Heritage? or would like to share an update on a symbol’s removal or relocation, contact us . . .

Read more about the 100+ symbols that have been removed from public spaces across the U.S. here.

In solidarity,

Your friends at the Southern Poverty Law Center

P.S. Follow us on Facebook, Twitter and Instagram to get updates on the work to remove Confederate symbols and monuments from public spaces.

There are basically three things we must do:

1) Strengthen heritage laws in each Southern state.

This is the most important thing we can do and we absolutely must do it. We can not fail. We have got to give the heritage laws in each Southern state real teeth with real bite. In Alabama, the paltry $25,000 fine is an invitation to Democrat mayors to just pay it then remove whatever monument they want. Alabama might as well not have a heritage law.

What Alabama's law should say is that there is a $250,000 fine for removing an historical monument, and further, councilmen and women, and mayors, can be sued personally, if they vote to do unlawful things.

The national SCV should encourage this and keep up with it. It is best done by camps and people in individual states but SCV HQ should know what is going on everywhere, at all times, so they can learn from the best, and pass along winning techniques that can help everybody.

By SCV HQ keeping up with all of these efforts, they will know when a state is weak or needs help, and they can help them. There is enough talent and desire in every state in the Union to become politically powerful and make friends in legislatures and get the job done.

A lot of this can be done quietly and behind the scenes but the effort absolutely has to be aggressive. Every state in the South has to do it. Leaders need to come forward, camps and individuals, and get after it in their states.

I know of excellent efforts going on right now, and they promise to be effective. Success begets success. Leaders in different states can become friends and share information privately, behind the scenes. They can call on members to raise money.

SCV national headquarters should encourage it all with a ferocious urgency.

Just imagine what it would look like if every Southern state had a heritage law with teeth, with the ability to hold these cowardly, characterless mayors and city councilmen and women accountable, to sue them personally when possible.

Years ago, former Senate Majority Leader Trent Lott of Mississippi, made a great commercial supporting the SCV because he was a member. This kind of thing should be going on constantly.

In the current election, Georgia has, on their ballot, an initiative to remove sovereign immunity from cities and towns. That is a great thing to push everywhere because why should cities and towns be allowed to do illegal things simply because they are protected by sovereign immunity? They shouldn't be.

Sovereign immunity encourages illegal activity. If city, county and other leaders knew they could be sued, all of them would do better, and that would be good for America.

Here is more information on the issue of sovereign immunity now on the ballot in Georgia. This comes from Georgia Division Commander, Tim Pilgrim, October 12, 2020, with subject line: Vote (YES) on Constitutional Amendment -2-:

Vote (YES) for Constitutional Amendment No. 2
that will repeal the Doctrine of Sovereign Immunity


Early voting starts tomorrow on October 12th. We have a very important Georgia Constitutional Amendment No. 2 that we will be voting on. Constitutional Amendment No. 2 repeals the legal doctrine of sovereign immunity in our State's Constitution.

Most of you have been following our current legal battles against the Cities and Counties that are removing our Veterans Monuments. The primary defense that these Cities and Counties are using against the Sons of Confederate Veterans is the doctrine of sovereign immunity.

The legal doctrine of sovereign immunity allows municipalities, counties and State governments and their agencies to violate State Law without any repercussions, because they can claim they have sovereign immunity. The same laws that if they were violated by a Citizen, that Citizen would be charged, fined and jailed.

Also these municipalities, counties and State governments cannot be sued by Citizens, groups or organizations for the violation of State Laws because the legal defense of sovereign immunity prevents these groups from having legal standing to sue. [Emphasis added.]

Below is how it will be presented on the Official State Ballot:

Sovereign Immunity Amendment, -2-, on Georgia's 2020 ballot. VOTE YES TO END SOVEREIGN IMMUNITY!
Sovereign Immunity Amendment, -2-, on Georgia's 2020 ballot. VOTE YES TO END SOVEREIGN IMMUNITY!

Click Here: For a Voters Guild from the Veterans Memorial Coalition

Wait a minute! In the Voters Guide you left out Stacey Abrams.

JUST KIDDING!!! She is the worst, most embarrassing political figure in Georgia's history.

Click Here: To make a donation to Heritage Defense to help us fight these legal battles.

Georgia's Constitutional Amendment -2- is worded well. I don't know why anybody would oppose it. This is an exciting possibility and I pray it passes! GO GEORGIA!

I am behind our SCV national headquarters all the way. There are probably efforts underway that I am not aware of and I hope that is the case.

As the U.S. Army Rangers say, Rangers lead the way!

In this heritage fight, the SCV needs to lead the way.

They need to be quietly effective but have plans in place for TOTAL VICTORY which is a strong heritage law in every single Southern state. That's what victory looks like.

We need to become sophisticated and powerful in our state legislatures because we are in a political fight and not a history debate.

Get prominent citizens of each state who care about their state's history to step up, former as well as current legislators, military leaders, and accomplished citizens who are fed up with the destruction of American history.

Everybody supports a winner, and winning encourages more winning.

2) Write and promote Southern history ourselves.

The words of our ancestors and other primary source documents are there in troves.

Academia today is largely worthless and are more the enemy because of political correctness and wokeness. Neither academia nor the news media are interested in truthful history. They politicized history in the 1960s and that has dumbed down the country and led us to the ignorant place we're at today.

Academia and the news media (except for Fox News) are nearly 100% liberal and Democrat. I know the actual statistic is only 90% but the few non-liberals will not say a word and endanger their tenure or pension.

Fortunately, neither academia nor the news media has any credibility after pushing Mueller's Russia hoax for three years. Around 70% of the public does not trust the news media at all,3 and the idiotic wokeness and anti-free speech on college campuses have turned them into a joke to laugh at.

Most of American history prior to the 1960s is beneficial. The standard back then was objectivity and fairness. There are a lot of excellent works written by Northerners supporting the South, and a ton of things by Europeans such as Blackwood's Edinburgh Magazine, Charles Dickens, et al.

Some excellent history has been written since the '60s once you separate it from the politically correct fraud. Clyde Wilson has written several books of listings of outstanding Southern history books and movies to study. They are all on Shotwell Publishing's website (

Visit the website of the Abbeville Institute and their outstanding blog. Get on their blog list and receive an excellent article daily, and support them with cash. Go to

Join the Society of Independent Southern Historians:

Visit Phil Leigh's excellent blog:

Visit for outstanding articles on history and current events.

Visit Boyd Cathey's blog, My Corner, at

We can review current "woke" books and post the reviews on our websites and blogs.

I have numerous articles on my blog all documented and cited. I encourage compatriots to reprint or link to any of those articles. Just give me author/publisher credit (Gene Kizer, Jr., Charleston Athenaeum Press, and link to my website.

Go to, the Sons of Confederate Veterans website.

Brian McClanahan has whole courses you can take online at your own leisure from his McClanahan Academy. Check them out at

A lot of camps have excellent websites with the history of their namesakes and other information. They should add a ton more good information and link to other great sites.

What I have mentioned here is a molecule's worth of sources from a mountain of available information.

3) A winning position on monuments in public discussions is NEVER to accept removing one, but encourage building more.

When SJW agitators say something needs to be removed, tell them 750,000 soldiers died in the War Between the States, and hell no, no monument needs to be removed, but you can build one to your ancestors and we may even support you!

Contextualized plaques are better than a monument being removed but they and their politically correct hate should be avoided.

We should begin a monument building movement exactly like our ancestors did at the beginning of the twentieth century. We will use private property, and even buy property as close to city centers as possible, because in the next century, those places will end up in the middle of cities.

We should make sure, legally, that those monuments can never, ever be removed for any reason.

Another extremely important thing we can do is get on the newsletter lists of all of our enemies so we know what they are doing all the time and how they are thinking. Remember what the Godfather said: Hold your friends close but your enemies closer.

Many of our enemies use highly effective techniques including social media, and we can learn a lot as well as keep up with them.

At the very least, reading their hateful garbage will infuriate you into more action.

Target for political annihilation the mostly Democrat mayors and councilmen and women who have removed our monuments. Perhaps organize yourself so specific camp leaders work with legislators to strengthen heritage laws, and others go after political enemies.

No matter how it is done, it has GOT to be done, and effectively.

We can have victory in this war but we have got to start winning significant battles, and we certainly can.

Democrat Mayor John Tecklenburg in Charleston, South Carolina who took down the Calhoun monument, which was said to be as good as any in the city of Rome, Italy, needs to be defeated.

Republican Mayor Sandy Stimpson in Mobile, Alabama, who took down Raphael Semmes magnificent monument, should be targeted, among many many others.

This is all hands on deck but going after these people politically, and raising money and building more monuments as we go, will be SO GRATIFYING.

We should strongly support all leaders, especially political leaders, who support us. President Donald J. Trump has been our most powerful supporter in the past 75 years. He has stood up for the battle flag and Gen. Lee's monument in Charlottesville, and he has fought against changing the Confederate names of Army bases in the South.

President Trump has caught hell for standing with us and we surely should pay him back with strong support on November 3rd. I don't need to list the many many other things Trump supports that we are for, such as a strong Second Amendment, his pro-life stance, appointing hundreds of conservatives to federal courts and three to the Supreme Court, his pro-business and strong support for our military and law enforcement. There is so much more.

Support all Republicans on November 3rd, even if you have to hold your nose with some of them.

Just remember, Virginia's Monument Avenue was safe and magnificent when Republicans were in control.

The moment Ralph Northam and Democrats took over, they destroyed it.

President Trump will be with us the next four years if he wins, so lets support him strongly and make both the South, and America, great again!

Deo Vindice!



1 "Hunter Biden emails: Tony Bobulinski says he was warned, ‘You’re just going to bury all of us’", by Bruce Golding, October 27, 2020,, Accessed 10-28-20.

2 Mike Scruggs, "The Black Soldiers of the Confederacy", VDare,, Accessed 10-22-20.

3 The 70% figure who do not trust the news media comes from several polls in the past few years. A recent poll by Gallop, October 6, 2020, shows that "About only 40% of people would slightly trust the media, while about 60% of people would have little to no trust in the news." Also, "Another thing that a recent poll has shown is that political parties play a huge part in who trusts the media. A whopping 73% of Democrats have at least a fair amount of trust in the media while only 3% of the Republicans and 6% of Independents said that they have a great deal of trust." All of this comes from the article "Gallop Poll shows approval of media at all time low...You'll be surprised just how low",, Accessed 10-7-20. [Emphasis added.]

Winning, and the Philosophy of Success

It is and always has been an American zeal to be first
in anything we do, and to win, and to win, and to win.
– Vince Lombardi

Winning, and the Philosophy of Success

by Gene Kizer, Jr.

Publisher's Note: This is one of the few non-Southern history articles on this blog but this is such GREAT material I have wanted to publish it for a while. This is Chapter X of my pro-South, 360 page book, The Elements of Academic Success, How to Graduate Magna Cum Laude from College (or how to just graduate, PERIOD!), published in 2014. The words and philosophies of driven, successful people are highly motivational. In this final chapter of the book are 61 pages of powerful quotations from some of the most successful people throughout history. It is thoroughly enjoyable to read material like this but let me warn you: You WILL get fired up! The first few quotations are part of the epigraph, then the bold topic sentences continue from previous chapters.

“Winning is not everything. It is the only thing.”
Vince Lombardi

“Whether you believe you can do a thing or believe you can’t, you are right.”
Henry Ford

“The longer I live, the more deeply I am convinced that that which makes the difference between one man and another – between the weak and the powerful, the great and the insignificant – is energy, invincible determination, a purpose once formed and then death or victory.”
Fowell Buxton

“Success or failure in business is caused more by mental attitude even than by mental capacities.”
Walter Dill Scott

“You can really have everything you want. If you go after it. But you will have to want it. The desire for success must be so strong within you that it is the very breath of your life — your first thought when you awaken in the morning, your last thought when you go to bed at night.”
Charles E. Popplestone

“The starting point of all achievement is desire. Keep this constantly in mind. Weak desires bring weak results, just as a small amount of fire makes a small amount of heat.”
Napoleon Hill

“People do not lack strength; they lack will.”
Victor Hugo

“Success isn’t a result of spontaneous combustion. You must set yourself on fire.”
Arnold H. Glasow

“It’s not the size of the man in the fight, it’s the size of the fight in the man.”
Teddy Roosevelt

323. Read about success and those who have achieved it.

You can develop a powerful attitude by reading about success and those who have achieved it. There is nothing so motivational as a good story in which the hero bleeds and struggles but refuses to be beaten, and finally wins. Be that protagonist in your own story!

324. Accumulate a library of success books and refer back to them regularly.

The result of reading about success and successful people is the same as when you associate with successful people. Their success and good attitude rub off on you.

Once you go to an online book store such as,,,,, et al., there are links to all the other success and positive mental attitude books. Many of them are also available as audio books.

Walk into a bookstore and look in the self-help and inspiration sections. In the bigger stores, there will be a ton of great books, old and new.

325. Buy the old classic, Think and Grow Rich, by Napoleon Hill.

Think and Grow Rich is the best selling success book of all time. Chapter 1, "The Power of Thought," starts with:

TRULY, "thoughts are things," and powerful things at that, when they are mixed with definiteness of purpose, persistence and a BURNING DESIRE for their translation into riches, or other material objects.1

Need I say more.

And let me add "a BURNING DESIRE" for not just "riches or material objects" but intangibles such as graduating magna cum laude! That was as tangible to me as the Atlantic Ocean, and I had a BURNING DESIRE to get there and was willing to sacrifice and work myself into the ground, and I got there. So can you.

Napoleon Hill (1883-1970) wrote several other outstanding books.

326. Buy The Power of Positive Thinking, by Norman Vincent Peale.

Dr. Norman Vincent Peale (1898-1993) is another success author who has written numerous books. One of his most famous is The Power of Positive Thinking. Here’s how it starts in Chapter 1, “Believe in Yourself”:

BELIEVE IN YOURSELF! Have faith in your abilities! Without a humble but reasonable confidence in your own powers you cannot be successful or happy. But with sound self-confidence you can succeed. A sense of inferiority and inadequacy interferes with the attainment of your hopes, but self-confidence leads to self-realization and successful achievement. Because of the importance of this mental attitude, this book will help you believe in yourself and release your inner powers.2

327. Another classic is the huge 1936 bestseller, How to Win Friends and Influence People, by Dale Carnegie.

Dorothy Carnegie, wife of author Dale Carnegie, writes this in the Preface to the 2009 reprint:

How to Win Friends and Influence People was first published in 1937... took its place in publishing history as one of the all-time international best-sellers. It touched a nerve and filled a human need that was more than a faddish phenomenon of post-Depression days, as evidenced by its continued and uninterrupted
sales . . .3

This book has sold 15 million copies worldwide. It remains popular today.

Dale Carnegie (1888-1955) wrote several other success books.

328. The Art of War, by Sun Tzu, edited by James Clavell, is an enlightening book of strategy and success.

This great book was written 2,500 years ago in China. Sun Tzu defines supreme excellence:

To fight and conquer in all your battles is not supreme excellence; supreme excellence consists in breaking the enemy’s resistance without fighting.4

Sun Tzu knew that planning is essential to success on the battlefield.

The general who wins a battle makes many calculations in his temple before the battle is fought. The general who loses a battle makes but few calculations beforehand. Thus do many calculations lead to victory, and few calculations to defeat; how much more no calculation at all!5

329. Planning is also essential in life!

Planning leads to achievement of goals. Not planning leads to floundering.

If you don’t plan, you can’t concentrate your power or evaluate how you are doing. You can’t correct errors or stay on track.

Two millennia after Sun Tzu, and over a century ago, French dramatist and writer, Victor Hugo (1802-1885 – author of The Hunchback of Notre Dame, and Les Misérables) echoed Sun Tzu’s sentiment:

He who every morning plans the transactions of the day, and follows out that plan, carries a thread that will guide him through the labyrinth of the most busy life. The orderly arrangement of his time is like a ray of light which darts itself through all his occupations. But where no plan is laid, where the disposal of time is surrendered merely to the chance of incidents, all things lie huddled together in one chaos, which admits of neither distribution nor review.6

330. Read the autobiography of Wal-Mart founder, Sam Walton.

Sam’s 1992 autobiography, Made in America, My Story, by Sam Walton with John Huey, is a powerhouse of inspiration that you will think about every time you walk into Wal-Mart.

I have included some extra quotations here because THIS is how you succeed in business.

'Wal-Mart is the finest-managed company we have ever followed. We think it is quite likely the finest-managed company in America, and we know of at least one investor who thinks it is the finest-managed company in the world. We do not expect to find another Wal-Mart in our lifetime . . .' Margaret Gilliam, First Boston, around 19927

'(Sam Walton) is the greatest businessman of this century.' Harry Cunningham, Kmart Founder8

'I've known Sam since his first store in Newport, Arkansas, and I believe that money is, in some respects, almost immaterial to him. What motivates the man is the desire to absolutely be on top of the heap.' Charlie Baum, Early Wal-Mart Partner9

'I remember him saying over and over again: go in and check our competition. Check everyone who is our competition. And don't look for the bad. Look for the good. If you get one good idea, that's one more than you went into the store with, and we must try to incorporate it into our company. We're really not concerned with what they're doing wrong, we're concerned with what they're doing right, and everyone is doing something right.' Charlie Cate10

' (Sam Walton) is less afraid of being wrong than anyone I've ever known. And once he see he's wrong, he just shakes it off and heads in another direction.' David Glass11

'. . . If you take someone who lacks the experience and the know-how but has the real desire and the willingness to work his tail off to get the job done, he'll make up for what he lacks. And that proved true nine times out of ten. It was one way we were able to grow so fast.' Ferold Arend12

From Sam himself:

Even when I was a little kid in Marshall, Missouri, I remember being ambitious. . . . I was so competitive that when I started Boy Scouts in Marshall I made a bet with the other guys about which one of us would be the first to reach the rank of Eagle. Before I made Eagle in Marshall, we had moved to the little town of Shelbina, Missouri population maybe 1,500 but I won the bet; I got my Eagle at age thirteen the youngest Eagle Scout in the history of the state of Missouri at the time.13

This is a big contradiction in my makeup that I don't completely understand to this day. In many of my core values things like church and family and civic leadership and even politics  I'm a pretty conservative guy. But for some reason in business, I have always been driven to buck the system, to innovate, to take things beyond where they've been.14

I can tell you this, though: after a lifetime of swimming upstream, I am convinced that one of the real secrets to Wal-Mart's phenomenal success has been that very tendency. Many of our best opportunities were created out of necessity. The things that we were forced to learn and do, because we started out underfinanced and undercapitalized in these remote, small communities, contributed mightily to the way we've grown as a company.15

One way I've managed to keep up with everything on my plate is by coming in to the office really early almost every day, even when I don't have those Saturday numbers to look over. Four-thirty wouldn't be all that unusual a time for me to get started down at the office.16

Around 1976 and 1977, we definitely got the message that Kmart – with 1,000 stores – thought Wal-Mart – with 150 – had gotten too big for its britches.... In 1976, we had a session of our discounters’ trade group in Phoenix, and a lot of guys were talking about ways to avoid competing with Kmart directly. I got a little mad and told everybody they ought to stand up and fight them. I made it clear we planned to.17

If American business is going to prevail, and be competitive, we're going to have to get accustomed to the idea that business conditions change, and that survivors have to adapt to those changing conditions. Business is a competitive endeavor, and job security lasts only as long as the customer is satisfied. Nobody owes anybody else a living.18

This book is full of GOLD for entrepreneurs and people who plan business careers, especially in retail and marketing. There is a TON more extremely valuable information in this enjoyable book. It should be required reading for everybody in business.

331. Read some of Donald Trump’s books.

[Publisher's Note: It is fascinating to look back on this, now that Trump is president (Oct. 2020). You can see how these traits served him well the past four years. This is a great book full of valuable material. He has several others out there just like this.]

I read Think Big and Kick Ass, in Business and Life, by The Donald, co-authored with Bill Zanker. This book is full of highly motivational material and excellent advice such as:

To be a success the most important thing is to love what you do. You have to put in long hours and face enormous challenges to be successful. If you do not love what you do, you will never make it through. If you love your work, the difficulties will be balanced out by the enjoyment.19

All successful people are high-energy people who are passionate about what they do. Find a passion that energizes you!20

Do not look for approval from others. That is a sure sign of weakness.21

Some people carry around a lot of mental baggage, which destroys their focus. Get rid of it. It just gets in the way and slows you down.22

The worse hell you will ever face is the hell you create with your own mind. It is much worse than the hell other people create for you. So instead of dwelling on all the negatives, think about what you want. Think about all the good things you are going to do in life. Keep focused on your goal and never give up. Besides, bad times bring great opportunities.23

332. When you read an exceptionally motivational quotation, look up the person saying it and read a brief bio. Learn something about an accomplished person.

Just Google them and Wikipedia or somewhere will pop up. It makes the quotation so much more meaningful if you know a little about the person saying it. You don’t have to read much, just skim a few paragraphs and read what you want.

In the compilations below, there are hundreds of the most famous, accomplished men and women of all time whose stories and quotations are highly motivational.

One of them is Orison Swett Marden, founder of Success magazine and author of numerous books on success.

Also, Marden’s original inspiration, Samuel Smiles. Smiles wrote hundreds of articles and twenty-five books including Self-Help, a best-selling classic celebrating achievement and self-reliance. It was published in 1859 but is still powerful reading and just as relevant today. The principles are the same.

333. Compilations of success quotations are jam-packed with crackling, buzzing electricity.

One can get lost in a bliss of quotations about success, determination, desire, discipline, achievement and the other things humans are geared to do.

These types of books show you the minds and raw drive of men and women determined to make things happen in their lives. They are the movers, shakers and achievers of the world, and will not be denied.

Compilations of success quotations can be read over and over throughout one’s life for a shot of motivation or pure pleasure.

Here are a few I love:

“You know from past experience that whenever you have been driven to the wall, or thought you were, you have extricated yourself in a way which you never would have dreamed possible had you not been put to the test. The trouble is that in your everyday life you don’t go deep enough to tap the divine mind within you.”
Orison Swett Marden

“Nothing in the world can take the place of persistence. Talent will not; nothing is more common than unsuccessful men with talent. Genius will not; unrewarded genius is almost a proverb. Education will not; the world is full of educated derelicts. Persistence and determination alone are omnipotent.”
Calvin Coolidge

“You learn that, whatever you are doing in life, obstacles don’t matter very much. Pain or other circumstances can be there, but if you want to do a job bad enough, you’ll find a way to get it done.”
Jack Youngblood

“This force, which is the best thing in you, your highest self, will never respond to any ordinary half-hearted call, or any milk-and-water endeavor. It can only be reached by your supremest call, your supremest effort. It will respond only to the call that is backed up by the whole of you, not part of you; you must be all there in what you are trying to do. You must bring every particle of your energy, unswervable resolution, your best efforts, your persistent industry to your task or the best will not come out of you. You must back up your ambition by your whole nature, by unbounded enthusiasm and a determination to win which knows no failure.... Only a masterly call, a masterly will, a supreme effort, intense and persistent application, can unlock the door to your inner treasure and release your highest powers.”
Orison Swett Marden

“Get into a line that you will find to be a deep personal interest something you really enjoy spending twelve to fifteen hours a day working at, and the rest of the time thinking about.”
Earl Nightingale

“Success is not measured by what a man accomplished, but by the opposition he has encountered, and the courage with which he has maintained the struggle against overwhelming odds....”
Orison Swett Marden

“It is not ease, but effort — not facility, but difficulty, that makes men. There is, perhaps, no station in life in which difficulties have not to be encountered and overcome before any decided measure of success can be achieved.”
Samuel Smiles

“There are no gains without pains.”
Benjamin Franklin

“There is no success without hardship.”

“The measure of a man is the way he bears up under misfortune.”

“The harder the conflict, the more glorious the triumph.”
Thomas Paine

“No pain, no palm; no thorns, no throne; no gall, no glory; no cross, no crown.”
William Penn

“People who have accomplished work worthwhile have had a very high sense of the way to do things. They have not been content with mediocrity. They have not confined themselves to the beaten tracks; they have never been satisfied to do things just as others do them, but always a little better. They always pushed things that came to their hands a little higher up, a little farther. It is this little higher up, this little farther on, that counts in the quality of life’s work. It is the constant effort to be first-class in everything one attempts that conquers the heights of excellence.”
Orison Swett Marden

“He that wrestles with us strengthens our nerves and sharpens our skill. Our antagonist is our helper.”
Edmund Burke

“The very greatest things — great thoughts, discoveries, inventions — have usually been nurtured in hardship, often pondered in sorrow, and at length established with difficulty.”
Samuel Smiles

“First say to yourself what you would be; and then do what you have to do.”

“This above all: to thine own self be true.”
William Shakespeare

“Know thyself.”

“You may have a fresh start any moment you choose, for this thing that we call ‘failure’ is not the falling down, but the staying down.”
Mary Pickford

“It’s not over until it’s over.”
Yogi Berra

“What this power is I cannot say; all I know is that it exists and it becomes available only when a man is in that state of mind in which he knows exactly what he wants and is fully determined not to quit until he finds it.”
Alexander Graham Bell

“If I had to select one quality, one personal characteristic that I regard as being most highly correlated with success, whatever the field, I would pick the trait of persistence. Determination. The will to endure to the end, to get knocked down seventy times and get up off the floor saying, ‘Here goes number seventy-one!’”
Richard M. DeVos

“I do not think there is any other quality so essential to success of any kind as the quality of perseverance. It overcomes almost everything, even nature.”
John D. Rockefeller

“Success... seems to be connected with action. Successful men keep moving. They make mistakes, but they don’t quit.”
Conrad Hilton

“‘Where there is a will there is a way,’ is an old and true saying. He who resolves upon doing a thing, by that very resolution, often scales the barriers to it, and secures its achievement. To think we are able, is almost to be so — to determine upon attainment is frequently attainment itself.”
Samuel Smiles

“When your desires are strong enough you will appear to possess superhuman powers to achieve.”
Napoleon Hill

“I have brought myself, by long meditation, to the conviction that a human being with a settled purpose must accomplish it, and that nothing can resist a will which will stake even existence upon its fulfillment.”
Benjamin Disraeli

“There’s a way to do it better... find it.”
Thomas A. Edison

“It is not the critic who counts, not the man who points out where the strong stumbled, or how the doer could have done better. The credit belongs to the man who is actually in the arena; whose face is marred by dust and sweat and blood; who strives valiantly; who errs and comes short again and again; who knows the great enthusiasms, the great devotions, and spends himself in a worthy cause; who at the best knows in the end the triumph of high achievement; and who at the worst, if he fails, at least fails while daring greatly. His place shall never be with those cold and timid souls who know neither victory nor defeat.”
Theodore Roosevelt

“The beginning of a habit is like an invisible thread, but every time we repeat the act we strengthen the strand, add to it another filament, until it becomes a great cable and binds us irrevocably thought and act.”
Orison Swett Marden

“The individual who wants to reach the top in business must appreciate the might of the force of habit — and must understand that practices are what create habits. He must be quick to break those habits that can break him — and hasten to adopt those practices that will become the habits that help him achieve the success he desires.”
J. Paul Getty

“Any act often repeated soon forms a habit; and habit allowed, steadily gains in strength. At first it may be but as a spider’s web, easily broken through, but if not resisted it soon binds us with chains of steel.”
Tryon Edwards

“I made a resolve then that I was going to amount to something if I could. And no hours, nor amount of labor, nor amount of money would deter me from giving the best that there was in me. And I have done that ever since, and I win by it. I know.”
Colonel Harland Sanders

“All men who have achieved great things have been dreamers.”
Orison Swett Marden

“Think little goals and expect little achievements. Think big goals and win big success.”
David Joseph Schwartz

“We lift ourselves by our thought, we climb upon our vision of ourselves. If you want to enlarge your life, you must first enlarge your thought of it and of yourself. Hold the ideal of yourself as you long to be, always, everywhere — your ideal of what you long to attain — the ideal of health, efficiency, success.”
Orison Swett Marden

“Dream lofty dreams, and as you dream, so shall you become. Your vision is the promise of what you shall one day be; your ideal is the prophecy of what you shall at last unveil.”
James Allen

“Music should be something that makes you gotta move, inside or outside.”
Elvis Presley

“Ambition is a dream with a V8 engine.”
Elvis Presley

334. The most powerful success material I ever read was compiled by American philosopher and writer, Elbert Hubbard, and published in 1923 with title Elbert Hubbard’s Scrap Book.

I ran across Elbert Hubbard’s Scrap Book when I was in my early 20s, the edition with copyright 1923 “By The Roycrofters” (published posthumously by William H. Wise & Company, Roycroft Distributors, New York City).

The title page states, almost as a subtitle:

Containing the inspired and inspiring selections gathered during a lifetime of discriminating reading for his own use.

This 228 page book has subject, author and poetry indices, and is a product of the Arts and Crafts Movement of the early 20th century. It is ornate and decorative with hard brown covers tied together by cloth ribbon through three holes on the left-hand side.

335. Elbert Hubbard’s Scrap Book is powerful.

Inside is some of the best writing and philosophy in the history of the world by people who lived from ancient times right up to Hubbard’s death in 1915.

The flavor of Elbert Hubbard’s Scrap Book is definitely 19th century and before. Hubbard and his wife, Alice, died aboard the RMS Lusitania after it was torpedoed by the German submarine, Unterseeboot 20, on May 7, 1915 off the coast of Ireland two years before the United States entered World War I.

I read large parts of this book and found it so powerful and inspiring, it changed my life and has been a strong source of power and inspiration my entire life.

It also gave me a certain wisdom to have read the words of so many brilliant people across time.

336. Here are a few of the most powerful quotations for me from Elbert Hubbard’s Scrap Book.

“No one has success until he has the abounding life. This is made up of the many-folded activity of energy, enthusiasm and gladness. It is to spring to meet the day with a thrill at being alive. It is to go forth to meet the morning in an ecstasy of joy. It is to realize the oneness of humanity in true spiritual sympathy.”
Lillian Whiting

“He who would do something great in this short life must apply himself to work with such a concentration of his forces as, to idle spectators who live only to amuse themselves, looks like insanity.”
Francis Parkman, Jr.

“I never work better than when I am inspired by anger. When I am angry I can write, pray, and preach well; for then my whole temperament is quickened, my understanding sharpened, and all mundane vexations and temptations depart.”
Martin Luther

“Enthusiasm is the greatest asset in the world. It beats money and power and influence. Single-handed the enthusiast convinces and dominates where the wealth accumulated by a small army of workers would scarcely raise a tremor of interest. Enthusiasm tramples over prejudice and opposition, spurns inaction, storms the citadel of its object, and like an avalanche, overwhelms and engulfs all obstacles. It is nothing more or less than faith in action.

“Faith and initiative rightly combined remove mountainous barriers and achieve the unheard of and miraculous.

“Set the gem of enthusiasm afloat in your plant, in your office, or on your farm; carry it in your attitude and manner; it spreads like contagion and influences every fiber of your industry before you realize it; it means increase in production and decrease in costs; it means joy, and pleasure, and satisfaction to your workers; it means life, real, virile; it means spontaneous bedrock results – the vital things that pay dividends.”
Henry Chester

“A great deal of talent is lost in the world for want of a little courage. Everyday sends to their graves obscure men whom timidity prevented from making a first effort; who, if they could have been induced to begin, would in all probability have gone great lengths in the career of fame. The fact is, that to do anything in the world worth doing, we must not stand back shivering and thinking of the cold and danger, but jump in and scramble through as well as we can. It will not do to be perpetually calculating risks and adjusting nice chances; it did very well before the Flood, when a man would consult his friends upon an intended publication for a hundred-and-fifty years, and live to see his success afterwards; but at present, a man waits, and doubts, and consults his brother, and his particular friends, till one day he finds he is sixty yeas old and that he has lost so much time in consulting cousins and friends that he has no more time to follow their advice.”
Sydney Smith

“Oh, the eagerness and freshness of youth! How the boy enjoys his food, his sleep, his sports, his companions, his truant days! His life is an adventure, he is widening his outlook, he is extending his dominion, he is conquering his kingdom. How cheap are his pleasures, how ready his enthusiasms! In boyhood I have had more delight on a haymow with two companions and a big dog – delight that came nearer intoxication – than I have ever had in all the subsequent holidays of my life.

“When youth goes, much goes with it. When manhood comes, much comes with it. We exchange a world of delightful sensations and impressions for a world of duties and studies and meditations. The youth enjoys what the man tries to understand. Lucky is he who can get his grapes to market and keep the bloom under them, who can carry some of the freshness and eagerness and simplicity of youth into his later years, who can have a boy’s heart below a man’s head.”
John Burroughs

“Believe me when I tell you that thrift of time will repay you with a usury of profit beyond your most sanguine dreams; and that waste of it will make you dwindle alike in intellectual and moral stature, beyond your darkest reckoning.”
W. E. Gladstone

“If time be of all things most precious, wasting time must be the greatest prodigality, since lost time is never found again; and what we call time enough always proves little enough. Let us then be up and doing, and doing to a purpose; so by diligence shall we do more with less perplexity.”
Benjamin Franklin

“There are two ways of being happy: We may either diminish our wants or augment our means — either will do — the result is the same; and it is for each man to decide for himself, and do that which happens to be the easiest.

"If you are idle or sick or poor, however hard it may be to diminish your wants, it will be harder to augment your means.

"If you are active and prosperous or young or in good health, it may be easier to augment your means than to diminish your wants.

"But if you are wise, you will do both at the same time, young or old, rich or poor, sick or well; and if you are very wise you will do both in such a way as to augment the general happiness of society.”
Benjamin Franklin

“The power of a man increases steadily by continuance in one direction. He becomes acquainted with the resistances and with his own tools; increases his skill and strength and learns the favorable moments and favorable accidents. He is his own apprentice, and more time gives a great addition of power, just as a falling body acquires momentum with every foot of the fall.”
Ralph Waldo Emerson

“There is but one straight road to success, and that is merit. The man who is successful is the man who is useful. Capacity never lacks opportunity. It can not remain undiscovered, because it is sought by too many anxious to use it.”
Bourke Cockran

“I never make the mistake of arguing with people for whose opinions I have no respect.”
Edward Gibbon

“If the world does owe you a living, you yourself must be your own collector.”
Theodore N. Vail

“He is not only idle who does nothing, but he is idle who might be better employed.”

“Every year I live I am more convinced that the waste of life lies in the love we have not given, the powers we have not used, the selfish prudence that will risk nothing, and which, shirking pain, misses happiness as well. No one ever yet was the poorer in the long run for having once in a lifetime 'let out all the length of all the reins.'”
Mary Chalmondeley

“The law of worthy life is fundamentally the law of strife. It is only through labor and painful effort, by grim energy and resolute courage, that we move on to better things.”
Theodore Roosevelt

“Nature gives to every time and season some beauties of its own; and from morning to night, as from the cradle to the grave, is but a succession of changes so gentle and easy that we can scarcely mark their progress.”
Charles Dickens

“Courage and perseverance have a magical talisman, before which difficulties disappear and obstacles vanish into air.”
John Quincy Adams

“Self-confidence is the first requisite to great undertakings.”
Samuel Johnson

“Habit is a cable; we weave a thread of it every day, and last we can not break it.”
Horace Mann

“Affection can withstand very severe storms of vigor, but not a long polar frost of indifference.”
Sir Walter Scott

“When one begins to turn in bed it is time to turn out.”
Arthur Wellesley, 1st Duke of Wellington

“Except a living man there is nothing more wonderful than a book! A message to us from the dead – from human souls we never saw, who lived, perhaps thousands of miles away. And yet these, in those little sheets of paper, speak to us, arouse us, terrify us, teach us, comfort us, open their hearts to us as brothers."
Charles Kingsley

“The men whom I have seen succeed best in life have always been cheerful and hopeful men, who went about their business with a smile on their faces, and took the changes and chances of this mortal life like men, facing rough and smooth alike as it came.”
Charles Kingsley

“‘Letting well enough alone’ is a foolish motto in the life of a man who wants to get ahead. In the first place, nothing is ‘well enough,’ if you can do it better.

“No matter how well you are doing, do better. There is an old Spanish proverb which says, ‘Enjoy the little you have while the fool is shunting for more.’

“The energetic American ought to turn this proverb upside down and make it read, ‘While the fool is enjoying the little he has, I will hunt for more.’

“The way to hunt for more is to utilize your odd moments. Every minute that you save by making it useful, more profitable, is so much added to your life and its possibilities. Every minute lost is a neglected by-product — once gone, you will never get it back.”
Arthur Brisbane

“Among the aimless, unsuccessful or worthless, you often hear talk about ‘killing time.’

The man who is always killing time is really killing his own chances in life; while the man who is destined to success is the man who makes time live by making it useful.”
Arthur Brisbane

“The ladder of life is full of splinters, but they always prick the hardest when we’re sliding down.”
William L. Brownell

“Forty is the old age of youth; fifty is the youth of old age.”
Victor Hugo

“Fifty is the old age of youth; sixty is the youth of old age in 2012.”
Gene Kizer, Jr.

“It is customary to say that age should be considered because it comes last. It seems just as much to the point that youth comes first. And the scale fairly kicks the beam if you go on to add that age, in a majority of cases, never comes at all. Disease and accidents make short work of even the most prosperous persons. To be suddenly snuffed out in the middle of ambitious schemes is tragic enough at the best; but when a man has been grudging himself his own life in the meanwhile, and saving up everything for the festival that was never to be, it becomes an hysterically moving sort of tragedy which lies on the confines of farce.... To husband a favorite claret until the batch turns sour is not at all an artful stroke of policy; and how much more with a whole cellar – a whole bodily existence! People may lay down their lives with cheerfulness in the sure expectations of a blessed mortality; but that is a different affair from giving up with all its admirable pleasures, in the hope of a better quality of gruel in a more than problematic, nay, more than improbable old age. We should not compliment a hungry man who should refuse a whole dinner and reserve all this appetite for the desert before he knew whether there was to be any dessert or not. If there be such a thing as imprudence in the world, we surely have it here. We sail in leaky bottoms and on great and perilous waters; and to take a cue from the dolorous old naval ballad, we have heard the mermaids singing, and know that we shall never see dry land any more. Old and young, we are all on our last cruise. If there is a fill of tobacco among the crew, for God’s sake, pass it round and let us have a pipe before we go!”
Robert Louis Stevenson

“You want a better portion than you now have in business, a better and fuller place in life. All right, think of that better place and you in it. Form the mental image. Keep on thinking of that higher position, keep the image constantly before you, and – no, you will not suddenly be transported into the higher job, but you will find that you are preparing yourself to occupy the better position in life – your body, your energy, your understanding, your heart will all grow up to the job – and when you are ready, after hard work, after perhaps years of preparation, you will get the job and the higher place in life.”
Joseph H. Appel

“Why should we call ourselves men, unless it is to succeed in everything, everywhere? Say of nothing, ‘This is beneath me,’ nor feel that anything is beyond our powers. Nothing is impossible to the man who can will.”
Honoré Mirabeau

“The man who starts out with the idea of getting rich won’t succeed; you must have a larger ambition. There is no mystery in business success. If you do each day’s task successfully, stay faithfully within the natural operations of commercial law, and keep your head clear, you will come out all right.”
John D. Rockefeller

“I owe all my success in life to having been always a quarter of an hour beforehand.”
Horatio Lord Nelson

“The men who try to do something and fail are infinitely better than those who try to do nothing and succeed.”
Lloyd Jones

“To love and win is the best thing; to love and lose the next best.”
William Makepeace Thackeray

By Robert Louis Stevenson

The streets are full of human toys,
Wound up for threescore years;
Their springs are hungers, hopes and joys,
And jealousies and fears.

They move their eyes, their lips, their Hands;
They are marvelously dressed;
And here my body stirs or stands,
A plaything like the rest.

The toys are played with till they fall,
Worn out and thrown away.
Why were they ever made at all!
Who sits to watch that play!

337. Other quotations by Elbert Hubbard himself.

“There is no failure except in no longer trying. There is no defeat except from within, no really insurmountable barrier save our own inherent weakness of purpose.”

“At last we must admit that the man who towers above his fellows is the one who has the power to make others work for him; a great success is not possible any other way.”

“To remain on earth you must be useful. Otherwise, Nature regards you as old metal and is only watching for a chance to melt you over.”

“Genius may have its limitations, but stupidity is not thus handicapped.”

“Life is just one damned thing after another.”

“To avoid criticism do nothing, say nothing, be nothing.”

“The greatest mistake you can make in life is to be continually fearing you will make one.”

“One machine can do the work of fifty ordinary men. No machine can do the work of one extraordinary man.”

“You can lead a boy to college, but you can’t make him think.”

“We awaken in others the same attitude of mind we hold toward them.”

“The love we give away is the only love we keep.”

“Prison is a Socialist’s Paradise, where equality prevails, everything is supplied and competition is eliminated.”

“Do not take life too seriously. You will never get out of it alive.”

338. Find and clip stirring words anywhere, and make them yours.

This was an ad in the Wall Street Journal, December 5, 1985 sponsored by United Technologies of Hartford, Connecticut. At the bottom, it read “How we perform as individuals will determine how we perform as a nation.”

To the Kid on the End of the Bench

Champions once sat where you’re sitting, kid. The Football Hall of Fame (and every other Hall of Fame) is filled with names of people who sat, week after week, without getting a spot of mud on their well-laundered uniforms. Generals, senators, surgeons, prize-winning novelists, professors, business executives started on the end of a bench, too. Don’t sit and study your shoe tops. Keep your eye on the game. Watch for defensive lapses. Look for offensive opportunities. If you don’t think you’re in a great spot, wait until you see how many would like to take it away from you at next spring practice. What you do from the bench this season could put you on the field next season as a player, or back in the grandstand as a spectator.

339. There are excellent success-quotation websites on the Internet. Search for “success quotations.”

The great thing about quotation websites is the vast amount of information, all cataloged by author and subject. Do a Google search for “success quotations” or “famous quotations” and all kinds of things will pop up.

A good website is The Quotations Page at Their home page boasts that it is the oldest quotation website, established in 1994, and today (March, 2013) has 27,000 quotations from 3,100 authors with more added daily.24 There are extensive quotations, from Aristotle to Elizabeth Clarkson Zwart. It’s a philosophical feast! And all are categorized by author and subject. Here are three:

"Security is mostly a superstition. It does not exist in nature …. Life is either a daring adventure or nothing."
Helen Keller

"Duty then is the sublimest word in the English language. You should do your duty in all things. You can never do more, you should never wish to do less."
Gen. Robert E. Lee

"How far you go in life depends on your being tender with the young, compassionate with the aged, sympathetic with the striving, and tolerant of the weak and the strong. Because someday in life you will have been all of these."
George Washington Carver

340. Another good website is Here are a few from H. L. Mencken

Henry Louis "H. L." Mencken (September 12, 1880 – January 29, 1956), the "Sage of Baltimore," was one of the most influential American writers of the twentieth century, a journalist, editor, satirist and critic of American culture. Several of his books are still in print.

"An idealist is one who, on noticing that roses smell better than a cabbage, concludes that they will also make better soup."

"Immorality: the morality of those who are having a better time."

"It is impossible to imagine the universe run by a wise, just and omnipotent God, but it is quite easy to imagine it run by a board of gods."

"No married man is genuinely happy if he has to drink worse whiskey than he used to drink when he was single."

"No matter how happily a woman may be married, it always pleases her to discover that there is a nice man who wishes that she were not."

"Puritanism. The haunting fear that someone, somewhere, may be happy."

"The theory seems to be that as long as a man is a failure he is one of God’s children, but that as soon as he succeeds he is taken over by the Devil."

341. More from

Here's one from the guy who wrote God Bless America:

Irving Berlin, May 11, 1888-September 22, 1989, was a brilliant American composer and songwriter who wrote God Bless America, White Christmas, There’s No Business Like Show Business, and many other great songs.

“Our attitudes control our lives. Attitudes are a secret power working twenty-four hours a day, for good or bad. It is of paramount importance that we know how to harness and control this great force.”
Irving Berlin

“I honestly think it is better to be a failure at something you love than to be a success at something you hate.”
George Burns

“Success is to be measured not so much by the position that one has reached in life as by the obstacles which he has overcome.”
Booker T. Washington

“Excellence is to do a common thing in an uncommon way.”
Booker T. Washington

“Action is the foundational key to all success.”
Pablo Picasso

“Don’t aim for success if you want it; just do what you love and believe in, and it will come naturally.”
David Frost

“Each player must accept the cards life deals him or her: but once they are in hand, he or she alone must decide how to play the cards in order to win the game.”

“No problem can withstand the assault of sustained thinking.”

“Excellence is an art won by training and habituation. We do not act rightly because we have virtue or excellence, but we rather have those because we have acted rightly. We are what we repeatedly do. Excellence, then, is not an act but a habit.”

“I count him braver who overcomes his desires than him who conquers his enemies; for the hardest victory is over self.”

“Men acquire a particular quality by constantly acting in a particular way.”

“Moral excellence comes about as a result of habit. We become just, by doing just acts, temperate by doing temperate acts, brave by doing brave acts.”

“The aim of art is to represent not the outward appearance of things, but their inward significance.”

“You will never do anything in this world without courage. It is the greatest quality of the mind next to honor.”

“Youth is easily deceived because it is quick to hope.”

“Love begets love, love knows no rules, this is same for all.”

“Love conquers all.”

“Love conquers all things; let us too surrender to Love.”

“When I don’t know whether to fight or not, I always fight.”
Horatio Lord Nelson

“All the world’s a stage, and all the men and women merely players: they have their exits and their entrances; and one man in his time plays many parts, his acts being seven ages.”
William Shakespeare, from As You Like It, Act II, Scene VII

“Cowards die many times before their deaths; the valiant never taste of death but once.”
William Shakespeare, from Julius Caesar, Act II, Scene II

“Life’s but a walking shadow, a poor player, that struts and frets his hour upon the stage, and then is heard no more; it is a tale told by an idiot, full of sound and fury, signifying nothing.”
William Shakespeare, from Macbeth, Act V, Scene V

“Nothing is really good or bad in itself – it’s all what a person thinks about it.”
William Shakespeare, from Hamlet, Act II, Scene II

“This above all: to thine own self be true, and it must follow, as the night the day, thou canst not then be false to any man.”
William Shakespeare, from Hamlet, Act I, Scene III

“Courage is the greatest of all virtues, because if you haven’t courage, you may not have an opportunity to use any of the others.”
Samuel Johnson

“If your determination is fixed, I do not counsel you to despair. Few things are impossible to diligence and skill. Great works are performed not by strength, but perseverance.”
Samuel Johnson

“Self-confidence is the first requisite to great undertakings.”
Samuel Johnson

“So far is it from being true that men are naturally equal, that no two people can be half an hour together, but one shall acquire an evident superiority over the other.”
Samuel Johnson

“The chains of habit are too weak to be felt until they are too strong to be broken.”
Samuel Johnson

“The greatest part of a writer’s time is spent in reading in order to write. A man will turn over half a library to make a book.”
Samuel Johnson

“There is no private house in which people can enjoy themselves so well as at a capital tavern …. No, Sir; there is nothing which has yet been contrived by man by which so much happiness is produced as by a good tavern or inn.”
Samuel Johnson

“Beer is living proof that God loves us and wants us to be happy.”
Benjamin Franklin

“Energy and persistence conquer all things.”
Benjamin Franklin

“Speak ill of no man, but speak all the good you know of everybody.”
Benjamin Franklin

“Take time for all things: great haste makes great waste.”
Benjamin Franklin

“Tell me and I forget. Teach me and I remember. Involve me and I learn.”
Benjamin Franklin

“One ought never to turn one’s back on a threatened danger and try to run away from it. If you do that, you will double the danger. But if you meet it promptly and without flinching, you will reduce the danger by half. Never run away from anything. Never!”
Winston Churchill

342. Know Vince Lombardi, immortal coach of the Green Bay Packers.

Coach Lombardi won numerous championships including the first two Super Bowls for the 1966 and ’67 seasons. He never had a losing season in the NFL. He is the epitome of drive, determination, blood, sweat and achievement.

What It Takes to be Number One

From the Lombardi web site,

Winning is not a sometime thing; it’s an all the time thing. You don’t win once in a while; you don’t do things right once in a while; you do them right all the time. Winning is a habit. Unfortunately, so is losing.

There is no room for second place. There is only one place in my game, and that’s first place. I have finished second twice in my time at Green Bay, and I don’t ever want to finish second again. There is a second place bowl game, but it is a game for losers played by losers. It is and always has been an American zeal to be first in anything we do, and to win, and to win, and to win.

Every time a football player goes to play his trade he’s got to play from the ground up – from the soles of his feet right up to his head. Every inch of him has to play. Some guys play with their heads. That’s O.K. You’ve got to be smart to be number one in any business. But more importantly, you’ve got to play with your heart, with every fiber of your body. If you’re lucky enough to find a guy with a lot of head and a lot of heart, he’s never going to come off the field second.

Running a football team is no different than running any other kind of organization – an army, a political party or a business. The principles are the same. The object is to win – to beat the other guy. Maybe that sounds hard or cruel. I don’t think it is.

It is a reality of life that men are competitive and the most competitive games draw the most competitive men. That’s why they are there – to compete. To know the rules and objectives when they get in the game. The object is to win fairly, squarely, by the rules – but to win.

And in truth, I’ve never known a man worth his salt who in the long run, deep down in his heart, didn’t appreciate the grind, the discipline. There is something in good men that really yearns for discipline and the harsh reality of head to head combat.

I don’t say these things because I believe in the ‘brute’ nature of man or that men must be brutalized to be combative. I believe in God, and I believe in human decency. But I firmly believe that any man’s finest hour – his greatest fulfillment to all he holds dear – is that moment when he has to work his heart out in a good cause and he’s exhausted on the field of battle – victorious.
Coach Vince Lombardi26

343. Other quotations by Vince Lombardi, also on the website.

"Dictionary is the only place that success comes before work. Hard work is the price we must pay for success. I think you can accomplish anything if you’re willing to pay the price."

"Winning is habit. Unfortunately, so is losing."

"The harder you work, the harder it is to surrender."

"Teams do not go physically flat, but they go mentally stale."

"Fatigue makes cowards of us all."

344. Powerful statements about Vince Lombardi by some of his players, from the book Lombardi, Winning Is the Only Thing, edited by Jerry Kramer.27

Jerry Kramer played at Green Bay for 11 years as an offensive lineman. During that time, the Packers won five National Championships and the first two Super Bowls. He’s most famous for the 1967 NFL Championship Game known as the Ice Bowl played against the Dallas Cowboys at Green Bay in sub-zero temperatures.

The Packers were down 17-14 with 16 seconds left in the game. It was third and goal from the two-foot line. If they ran and didn't score, the clock would run out and they would lose. The smarter play was a pass, so that if incomplete it would stop the clock and give them enough time to set up for the tying field goal to go into overtime.

Kramer assured Quarterback Bart Starr he could block on the frozen ground so Starr called a right 31 wedge with himself keeping.

On the snap, Kramer and center Ken Bowman instantly executed a perfect double-team block on the Cowboy’s Jethro Pugh and Starr got across the goal line! The Packers had won one of the greatest NFL games in history, 21-17.

Kramer is in the Green Bay Hall of Fame and his jersey retired. He is the author of several books including the best-selling Instant Replay, with Dick Schaap. He was also a sports commentator.

Alex Wojciechowicz28

Vince went into every game with the attitude, 'I'm here to die, are you?' He was ready to kill himself to win. He never said much. He was a leader by example. One game, someone hit him in the mouth, and he played the whole sixty minutes, cut and bleeding, then went and got about twenty stitches in his mouth.

Bart Starr29

I wasn't mentally tough before I met Coach Lombardi. . . . To win, you have to have a certain amount of mental toughness. Coach Lombardi gave me that. He taught me that you must have a burning desire to win. It's got to dominate all your waking hours. It can't ever wane. It's got to glow in you all the time.

. . . And in 1960, when we had to beat Los Angeles in the final game of the season to clinch the conference title, I was really ill. I got violently sick to my stomach during the game. But I kept playing—I was mentally tough; I wouldn't give in to my sickness—and we won the game.

I wanted to be one of the best quarterbacks in pro football, and I knew I didn't have the strongest arm in the world. I knew I wasn't the biggest guy or the fastest. But Coach Lombardi showed me that, by working hard and using my mind, I could overcome my weaknesses to the point where I could be one of the best.

The heart of his system was preparation. He prepared us beautifully for every game, and for every eventuality. That—more than the words of encouragement he occasionally gave me—was what built up my self-confidence. Thanks to Coach Lombardi, I knew—I was positive—that I would never face a situation I wasn't equipt to handle.

Paul Hornung30

I don't believe any team went into its game each Sunday as well prepared as we were. We knew just what to expect.

For instance, if we were playing the Baltimore Colts and we had the ball on the left side of the field between the forty-yard lines, we knew that, on third down, the Colts would throw up a zone defense against us. And we knew exactly how to attack that zone. The quarterback knew which plays to call, and the linemen knew how to adjust. Every single one of our linemen knew what a zone was. Hell, before Vince got there, even our quarterbacks—I was one of them—didn't know what a zone was. We just called some kind of pass on third down, and that was it. If it went incomplete, we just figured it was a bad pass. Vince made us the smartest team in football.

Frank Gifford31

I can remember sneaking out some nights after curfew in Oregon, and sometimes I'd come back in pretty late, and the lights would still be on in his room. I realized then the kind of work he was putting in. He had to be exhausted, but he never showed it. He'd be out on the field the next day, going full speed, driving himself every minute.

Vinny believes in the Spartan life, the total self-sacrifice, and to succeed and reach the pinnacle that he has, you've got to be that way. You've got to have total dedication. The hours you put in on a  job can't even be considered. The job is to be done . . . I saw the movie, Patton, and it was Vince Lombardi.

Sam Huff32

I love football, I love the game more than anything in the world, but my dedication equals one-third of his. It's his life. I remember one time we were watching some films, Kansas City versus Green Bay in the Super Bowl. On one play, Jimmy Taylor took off through tackle and broke to the outside and went for the touchdown. I think he carried about three guys with him. Lombardi, watching, was up and screaming, 'Look at that sonuvabitch run!' I guarantee he'd seen that film two hundred times, but he couldn't contain his enthusiasm.

Norb Hecker33

Of course, Vince admired great speakers. He had a record of Gen. MacArthur's famous speech to the cadets at West Point, the one about love, honor and duty, and he used to  play that record over and over in the coaches' room. You got tears in your eyes listening to it; it was fantastic.

345. If you draw power from other sources such as your faith or family, then nurture them too. Nurture all sources of power.

Put a lot into whatever gives you power! You can't get more out than you put in. Put a lot in! Especially if your effort is multiplied.

Don't listen to what anybody else says. Follow your heart. It's YOUR life and it's shorter than you think. Know yourself, as Socrates said. To thine own self be true, as Shakespeare said. Go after everything you want! Play the game with heart from the bottoms of your feet to the top of your head, as Lombardi said!

Having a philosophy of success in your mind will unleash a power you never knew you had. It is something that stays with you, something you can rely on to be there for you always! Nurture it! Promote it. You will be happy and fulfilled doing so.

346. Do things that give you confidence. I ran four marathons!

I ran 26.2 mile races four times the Island Marathon (Isle of Palms, SC early 1980s, my best time: 3 hrs., 23 mins.), the Savannah Marathon, the Marine Corps Marathon, and the Shut-In Ridge Run (I count this as a marathon because it was more grueling 17 miles up Little Pisgah!).

My marathons were difficult goals and I went after them with a vengeance. I also ran over fifty 10Ks and races of other distances. I had a blast doing so.

I think back on those days and it gives me a good feeling to know I had the guts to take on huge challenges and was man enough to make them happen. I will always feel great about my marathons and NOBODY can take them away from me.

347. I was determined to graduate magna cum laude, one of the greatest goals of my life.

And in the process, I ended up achieving History Departmental Honors and the Outstanding Student Award for the History Department, as well the Rebecca Motte American History Award the year before.

I was determined and was not going to be denied. I was willing to do whatever it took, and that meant long, long hours and TOTAL commitment.

I achieved my goals and those victories are mine to savor forever.

348. And now my goal is to help YOU do it!

Just imagine how good graduating magna cum laude will make you feel! Not to mention what you'll learn! And you'll feel that way the rest of your life. It's like winning an Olympic Gold Medal!

Of course if you've been playing too hard, just graduating, PERIOD, will make you feel pretty damn good too!

349. Do things that discourage self-consciousness.

Self-consciousness diverts focus in a critical way from your goals to your self. Don't paralyze yourself with self-consciousness. It ruins everything and is a waste of time.

Take on things that scare you! Jump out of a plane. Run a marathon. Anything that you know is a weakness, attack it. Even if you attack in a small way. Put yourself on the road to overcoming all problems, especially shyness and things that make you self-conscious.

Keep yourself positive. Keep your goals before you. Whatever is causing you to be self-conscious or ineffective, defeat it! You have the power. Use it.

350. Keep your body strong and fit.

It's hard to have a mind like a steel-trap if your body is flab. Shape up! Walk, run, bike ride. Go to the gym. Lift weights. Swim. Be physical. You will not believe how much better you look and feel, and how much more you will enjoy life.

351. America is a land of unlimited opportunity.

It is and always has been an American zeal to be first in anything we do, and to win, and to win, and to win.
Vince Lombardi

Decide what you want then GO GET IT! There is nothing in your way except your own self.

You’ve only got one life and it’s short, though it might not seem short.

I know it is hard for young people to see far into the future. Y’all have an immortality mindset just like the old man and old woman walking down the street once had.

And that’s fine. It’s normal. It’s human.

The way for young people to go into the future as if you have a road map is first pursue what you love! Pursue the things that stimulate and motivate you, and pursue them HARD and with great vigor.

Then, just stay on track. Do things that help you such as more education, more experiences, staying in shape, eating healthy, being happy, having fun. Make sure you don’t get hooked on anything like cigarettes, drugs, gambling . . . anything that controls you instead of you controlling it!

If your interests change, pursue your new interest with just as much energy. I know people who graduated from law school then decided they didn’t want to practice law and got into other fields.

I know people in other fields who decided they wanted to go to law school at middle age and did that.

I know people who have become writers at all ages, and LOTS of people who have started businesses at all ages!

There is simply no limit in America. Give back to your country and make sure it stays a land of individual freedom and responsibility, and unlimited opportunity!

Go have a GREAT life! I hope I have added to it.



1 Napoleon Hill, Think and Grow Rich (1937; reprinted as Think and Grow Rich: The Landmark Bestseller-Now Revised and Updated for the 21st Century; rev. and expanded by Arthur R. Pell – New York: Jeremy P. Tarcher/Penguin, 2005), 1.

2 Norman Vincent Peale, The Power of Positive Thinking (1952; reprint, New York: Ishi Press International, 2011), 1.

3 Dale Carnegie, How to Win Friends and Influence People, (1936; reprint, New York: Simon & Schuster, 2009), Preface, xi.

4 Sun Tzu, The Art of War, James Clavell, ed. (New York: Delacorte Press, 1983), 15.

5 Ibid., 11.

6 Victor Hugo quotation in Elbert Hubbard's Scrap Book (New York: Wm. H. Wise & Co., Roycroft Distributors, 1923), 169.

7 Sam Walton with John Huey, Made in America, My Story (New York: Doubleday, 1992), 103.

8 Ibid., 156.

9 Ibid., 8.

10 Ibid., 63.

11 Ibid., 39.

12 Ibid., 121.

13 Ibid., 12.

14 Ibid., 47.

15 Ibid., 49.

16 Ibid., 117.

17 Ibid., 191-192.

18 Ibid., 184.

19 Donald J. Trump and Bill Zanker, Think Big and Kick Ass, in Business and Life (New York: HarperCollins, 2007), 25.

20 Ibid., 27.

21 Ibid., 278.

22 Ibid., 236.

23 Ibid., 239.

24 The Quotations Page,, accessed March 28, 2013.

25 BrainyQuote,, accessed March 28, 2013.

26 Vince Lombardi, "What It Takes to be Number One",, accessed March 28, 2013.

27 Jerry Kramer, ed., Winning Is the Only Thing (New York: The World Publishing Company, 1970).

28 Wojciechowicz played on the offensive line at Fordham University in 1936 and '37 with Lombardi when Fordham was a football powerhouse. He and Lombardi were two of the famed Seven Blocks of Granite. Wojciechowicz went on to become an NFL Hall of Famer.

29 Starr was the Green Bay Packers' famed quarterback from 1956 to 1971, winning several NFL championships and the first two Super Bowls in which he was MVP in both. He is another Pro Football Hall of Famer and is also in the Green Bay Packers Hall of Fame. He played college football at Alabama. He had an NFL playoff record of 9-1, and the NFL's best passing completion percentage (57.4) when he retired in 1972.

30 Hornung is a Heisman Trophy winner and was inducted into both the Pro Football Hall of Fame and College Football Hall of Fame. He played at Notre Dame and was the number one draft pick in 1957, taken by the Green Bay Packers. Hornung played for Lombardi for eight years and became a star, breaking scoring records, many of which still stand. In 1960, he scored 176 points in a 12-game season. Green Bay won four league championships in those days including the first Super Bowl in 1967.

31 Gifford was an All-American at the University of Southern California in 1951 and '52, and is another Pro Football Hall of Famer. He spent 12 seasons with the NY Giants, and five of those were under head coach Vince Lombardi before Lombardi's Green Bay days. In each of Gifford's seasons under Lombardi, he was nominated for the Pro Bowl, and they never had a losing record. After football, Gifford became a sportscaster. He is married to Kathie Lee Gifford.

32 Huff was inducted into the NFL Hall of Fame in 1982. He played middle linebacker for the NY Giants from 1956 to '63, and for six of those years, the Giants won the division title. For four of those years, Huff was All-Pro. He spent four years with the Washington Redskins then retired before Lombardi talked him out of retirement.  He became a player/coach for the Redskins under Lombardi in 1969, and they went 7-5-2. That kept Lombardi's record of never coaching a losing NFL team, intact.

33 Hecker was an assistant coach under Vince Lombardi in Green Bay from 1959 to '65. In his career, he was a part of eight NFL championship teams and was the first head coach of the Atlanta Falcons.

Douglas Southall Freeman’s R. E. Lee: A Biography: A Compelling Review by Professor Charles W. Ramsdell

Douglas Southall Freeman's R. E. Lee: A Biography:
A Compelling Review by Professor Charles W. Ramsdell

Publisher's Note:
Charles W. Ramsdell, known during his lifetime as the Dean of Southern Historians, wrote the following review in 1935 at the peak of his career. It was two years later that Ramsdell wrote his famous treatise, "Lincoln and Fort Sumter," which indicts Abraham Lincoln for scheming and starting the War Between the States in Charleston Harbor.

Ramsdell's book reviews are works of art. As a brilliant scholar and authority on American history, he knew what to look for and was hard on writers when he did not find it. That was certainly not the case with Douglas Southall Freeman. Ramsdell writes, early on, that Freeman, with his four volume R. E. Lee: A Biography, has given us "the definitive life of Robert E. Lee."

This review is a pleasure to read and is like a mini-history of Robert E. Lee and the war.

Professor Charles W. Ramsdell, Dean of Southern Historians, University of Texas.
Professor Charles W. Ramsdell, Dean of Southern Historians, University of Texas.

Douglas Southall Freeman, himself, was a towering personality, a great American historian, biographer, newspaper editor, radio commentator and author. He was a Virginian born in Lynchburg, with a legendary work ethic. His dad, Walker Burford Freeman, had served with Gen. Lee in the Army of Northern Virginia.

Douglas Southall Freeman, c. 1916, approx. age 30, as the new editor of the Richmond News Leader.
Douglas Southall Freeman, c. 1916, approx. age 30, as the new editor of the Richmond News Leader.

His writing accomplishments include 1) Lee's Dispatches; 2) R. E. Lee: A Biography; 3) Lee's Lieutenants: A Study in Command; and 4) Biography of George Washington. He won a Pulitzer Prize for R. E. Lee: A Biography in 1935 (4 vols.), and another, posthumous, in 1958, for George Washington: A Biography (6 vols.).

An older Douglas Southall Freeman, still hard at work.
An older Douglas Southall Freeman, still hard at work.

Douglas Southall Freeman's Pulitzer Prizes were back in the day when Pulitzers meant something.

Today, Pulitzer Prizes are a joke. The New York Times's resident racist (one of them), Nikole Hannah-Jones, won one for the fraudulent 1619 Project, which is invented history, designed, as she said, to get reparations for blacks.

The New York Times and Washington Post won another Pulitzer Prize for reporting as true, something that turned out to be a complete fraud -- the Russia Hoax -- as determined by Robert Mueller and his three year investigation.

Here is Ramsdell's review as it appeared, verbatim, in The Journal of Southern History, Vol. 1, No. 2 (May, 1935), 230-236. Some of the paragraphs have been broken up to make it easier for online reading but no words have been left out or changed.

R. E. Lee: A Biography.
By Douglas Southall Freeman.
4 volumes. (New York and London:
Charles Scribner's Sons, 1934, 1935.
Pp. xiv, 647; xiii, 621: xiii, 559: ix, 594. $15.00.)

AS NEARLY AS ANY WORK MAY, these four volumes constitute the definitive life of Robert E. Lee; for, while even the indefatigable researches of Dr. Freeman over nearly twenty years cannot possibly have brought to light every scrap of evidence, it is improbable that any thing yet to be discovered will materially change the story he has told or seriously impair the judgments he has formed on Lee's character, actions, and career.

Robert E. Lee, oil on canvas, by Edward Calledon Bruce, 1865.
Robert E. Lee, oil on canvas, by Edward Calledon Bruce, 1865.

Although the original plan was for only one volume, as the material in his hands accumulated Dr. Freeman wisely chose to give himself full scope. The result is a full, clear narrative that moves with dignity, without hurry or prolixity, and frequently with eloquence.

Of the more than 2300 pages, about 450 are given to Lee's life prior to his resignation from the United States army in April, 1861 (of which 100 cover his participation in the War with Mexico), a little more than 1500 to his services to Virginia and the Confederacy, and about 300 to the presidency of Washington College.

More important even than the discovery of new material--or at any rate more interesting to this reviewer--is the careful analysis and weighing of the sources, especially when they are conflicting, the explanation of the elements which went to the formation of Lee's character and habits, the description of his steady growth in professional competence, and the exposition of the methods by which he solved his military problems.

How much of his high qualities of mind and character was derived from the ancestral Lees and Carters, how much came of the severe lessons inculcated in childhood or from an enlightened self-discipline no one can say with confidence. Certainly his forebears were men and women of character, but the reader gets the impression that innate honesty, simplicity of soul joined to the courtesy and kindliness of a true gentleman, and the precise workings of a high order of intelligence are the best explanations of both his military successes and the hold he acquired over the affections of all southerners and, eventually, of discerning northerners.

When at the age of thirty-nine Lee got his first experience of warfare in Mexico he had seen seventeen long years of service in the Bureau of Engineers and had reached no higher rank than a captaincy. His experiences in Mexico were to reveal his abilities and to teach him many things.

Lee at age 31 in 1838, as a Lieutenant of Engineers in the U.S. Army.
Lee at age 31 in 1838, as a Lieutenant of Engineers in the U.S. Army.
Lee around age 43, when he was a Brevet Lieutenant-Colonel of Engineers, c. 1850.
Lee around age 43, when he was a Brevet Lieutenant-Colonel of Engineers, c. 1850.

Freeman suggests that Lee was inspired by General Scott's example to audacity, that he learned from him the value of a trained staff in the development of strategical plans, the importance of careful reconnaissance, of field fortifications, of the great possibilities of flank movements, the relations of communications to strategy, and that

Lee concluded, from Scott's example, that the function of the commanding general is to plan the general operation, to acquaint his corps commanders with that plan, and to see that their troops are brought to the scene of action at the proper time; but that it is not the function of the commanding general to fight the battle in detail. . . . Whether he was right in this conclusion is one of the moot questions of his career.

He had no opportunity to study the use of cavalry and had to learn that in 1862.

Nor did he, in an army of only 10,000 men, have a chance to observe large scale operations or transportation by railroad. Between 1848 and 1861 he was able to advance his military training only during the three years while he was superintendent at West Point by the study of Napoleon.

It is well known that Lee was opposed to secession and that his resignation from the army in April, 1861, was based only upon what he felt was due to his state and his people. His high reputation was known to the authorities of Virginia and caused him to be made commander of the military and naval forces of the state.

The value of his services in mobilizing the Virginia volunteers and in selecting points of defense has been obscured by the fame of his later campaigns so that not the least of Freeman's distinctive contributions is his account of Lee's work as a military organizer and administrator in the early summer of 1861.

When the Confederate government took over control of the Virginia volunteers, Lee, who had been raised to the rank of general in the Confederate army by Jefferson Davis, remained in Richmond until one week after the battle of Manassas. Then he went into the mountains of western Virginia to begin his first independent campaign.

Here again Dr. Freeman has given us a clear account of what has hitherto been much confused.

Lee faced immense difficulties. He was sent out to coordinate, not to command, the scattered forces, although he did later take over command.

But the principal officers gave him infinite trouble with their mutual jealousies and bickerings. It rained incessantly; the roads were quagmires of "unfathomable mud"; food and forage were inadequate; the men were weakened by measles and other sickness.

When on two occasions he worked out plans of attack against the Federals, he was frustrated partly by the rains but more by the incompetence and quarrels of his officers as well as by his own unwillingness to be peremptory with them.

Lee returned to Richmond late in October without recovering western Virginia, the public confidence in him virtually gone. It is to the credit of Jefferson Davis that he understood Lee's difficulties and stood by him. Lee, for his part, had learned much in the mountains.

In exactly one week after his return he was sent to command the South Carolina-Georgia coast where the Union navy was threatening. His work there, largely that of an engineer, was so nearly perfect that the Confederates were able to hold the defenses he laid out until Sherman's army took them in the rear in 1865.

Publisher's Note: Lee's defenses along the 100 mile stretch between Savannah and Charleston, allowed the Charleston and Savannah Railroad to operate successfully until the very end of the war, as Ramsdell said. Because Confederates were always short of troops and outnumbered, it was imperative that Savannah be able to reinforce Charleston and vice versa. For example, just before the Battle of Secessionville in June, 1862, Yankees tried to break the railroad before their attack on Tower Battery on James Island but were unsuccessful and ammunition and reinforcements from Savannah were sent to Charleston. When Gen. Lee was setting up those defenses, his headquarters was Coosawhatchie, South Carolina, about midway between Savannah and Charleston, from November, 1861, to March, 1862. For those folks familiar with the West Ashley Greenway in Charleston, that was the route of the Charleston and Savannah Railroad. It operated as a working railroad line under a different name until around 1980, when plans for the Greenway were made. I remember waiting on Folly Road Extension at South Windermere Shopping Center on that dang train to go by when in high school in the late '60s. But, knowing today, that the Greenway was the route of the Charleston and Savannah Railroad, and along that route came Confederate reinforcements from Savannah in defense of Charleston during the war, makes the West Ashley Greenway incredibly special in my mind, almost sacred. There is a nice historical marker with the Charleston and Savannah Railroad's history about a mile up the Greenway from South Windermere, toward Savannah.

He was called back to Richmond early in March, 1862, to serve as military adviser to President Davis but without real authority. It was an uncongenial task, but he set to work. He was chiefly responsible for the resort to conscription, but his plan was badly mangled in the legislation by Congress.

After Joseph E. Johnston had retired from the Manassas front to face McClellan on the Peninsula, Lee was able to suggest the plan for the brilliant campaign by which "Stonewall" Jackson frightened Washington and prevented the Federal forces in northern Virginia from going to the aid of McClellan--a far-reaching strategic plan which was nearly wrecked by Johnston whose ideas for the defense of Richmond never went beyond the concentration of all available Confederate forces in front of that city and who never quite grasped the daring conceptions of Lee.

But Lee's part in the movement was unknown both to the public and the army, and when Davis placed him in command of the army on June 1, after Johnston was wounded, he had never actually conducted a battle and his reputation was still clouded.

It is manifestly impossible, within the limits of this review, to trace Freeman's account of each of Lee's campaigns; but something should be said of his method of presenting them.

He has chosen to give the reader only such information as Lee himself was able to obtain from day to day and hour to hour for this is the only way by which the reader can see the situation as Lee saw it.

It has been no easy task, for it has required great care in disentangling the probable truth from conflicting testimony; but Freeman has done it with such skill that few will question his conclusions.

He discards the story that Lee was able, by studying the personalities of his opponents, to predict what each one would do. On the contrary, Lee always insisted that one must expect the enemy "to do what he ought to do."

General Robert E. Lee during the War Between the States.
General Robert E. Lee during the War Between the States.

Lee's method was to seek out every bit of information he could procure, weigh it, balance one thing against another, discard what was improbable, and then decide what was best to do with the means available. He saw his problem as a whole and was never confused by details.

It is really exhilarating to watch, through the medium of these pages, the precise working of Lee's mind even in "the fog of war.'' When he made errors he discovered that they were errors and avoided repeating them.

He devised new methods of meeting new conditions, as in his development of field fortifications not merely for the greater protection of his thinning ranks but also to hold a position with fewer men in order to gain freedom for maneuver with the others.

Always he was painfully hampered in transportation facilities, in the commissariat, in the scarcity of clothing and shoes for his men, by the longer range and heavier metal of the Federal artillery, by the supreme difficulty, after the death of Jackson, of finding higher officers with the tactical skill to carry out his plans and at the same time to make wise use of the discretion he wished to give them.

Step by step through the campaigns and reorganization and ever-increasing difficulties that Lee faced the author takes his readers. At the end of each major campaign he submits a clear, candid, critical review of Lee's operations.

On many difficult or disputed questions he throws new light, but only a few instances can be mentioned here.

He justifies Lee for going into Maryland after Second Manassas because he could not feed his army where it was and the alternative was to retire behind the Rappahannock and leave an important section to the enemy.

The decision to fight at Sharpsburg came only after he knew Jackson was at hand and he found the ground favorable for defense.

One of Lee's greatest difficulties in the Pennsylvania campaign was the fact that two of the three corps of his army were under new and untried commanders, Ewell and A. P. Hill.

His failure to get all his forces in front of Grant at the beginning of the Wilderness fight was because he had had to guard against a thrust down the railroad on his left. He was fully aware of the possibility that Grant might cross the James and strike at Petersburg before that movement was begun, but he could get no definite information, even from Beauregard, as to what corps of Grant's army had actually crossed until it was almost too late.

In a notable chapter in the last volume, Freeman sums up Lee's qualities as a commander in these words:

The accurate reasoning of a trained and precise mind is the prime explanation of all these achievements. Lee was pre-eminently a strategist, and a strategist because he was a sound military logician. . . . These five qualities, then, gave eminence to his strategy--his interpretation of military intelligence, his wise devotion to the offensive, his careful choice of position, the exactness of his logistics, and his well-considered daring. Midway between strategy and tactics stood four other qualities of generalship that no student of war can disdain. The first was his sharpened sense of the power of resistance and of attack of a given body of men; the second was his ability to effect adequate concentration at the point of attack even when his force was inferior; the third was his careful choice of commanders and of troops for specific duties; the fourth was his employment of field fortification.

Among the mistakes of Lee, Freeman cites his too elaborate strategy in the Seven Days, his overestimate of the endurance of his infantry and his underestimate of the time required for the reduction of Harper's Ferry in the Maryland campaign, his permitting Longstreet to stay so long in Suffolk in April 1863, his selection of Ewell to command the Second Corps after Jackson's death, his acquiescence in the occupation of the Bloody Angle at Spotsylvania and the withdrawal of the artillery from that point, his "excessive amiability" at times when he should have been stern. But these errors weigh lightly against his supremely positive qualities.

Lee's relations with Jefferson Davis and his hold upon his men and the southern people are not hard to understand. He had no real difficulty with the Confederate president, partly because he understood him and had acquired a mental ascendancy over him and partly because he had a genuine respect for the civil authority and for Davis personally and was always tactful and deferential. Davis, moreover, had implicit confidence in Lee and always sustained him.

His men knew that he looked after their welfare with assiduous care and that they could approach him without fear. Stories of his personal kindness to humble privates spread through the army and aroused affectionate reverence, while his successes against heavy odds developed the belief that he was invincible. To the people in general his successes and his character made him seem a leader raised up for them by divine favor.

Freeman refuses to make comparison between Lee and other great commanders of history on the ground that differences of conditions were so incommensurable that comparisons would be futile.

One cannot but wish, however, that he had discussed the statement of certain recent military writers that Lee never showed that he was fitted for supreme command over a wide area such as Grant exercised after March, 1864. While it may well be answered that Lee was never given such authority until it was too late to effect anything, a careful study of his correspondence between March 13 and June 1. 1862, while he was Davis' adviser--though with little real authority--should throw some light upon this question.

Dr. Freeman's delightful account of Lee's five years in the presidency of Washington College reveals the general as an educational leader.

General Robert E. Lee in May 1869, a year before his death.
General Robert E. Lee in May 1869, a year before his death.

Not only did the trustees under the stimulus of his zeal rehabilitate the school materially and financially, but the faculty, under his guidance and in keeping with his anxiety for the training of southern youth in practical affairs, greatly enlarged the curriculum, anticipating many of the developments of later days.

Meanwhile Lee, although greatly disturbed by the radical policy of reconstruction, kept studiously aloof from political or sectional controversies while doing all in his power to bring about eventual reconciliation between North  and South. His prestige in his own section was as great as ever and no doubt much of the growth of the college was incident to his immense popularity.

But his health had failed rapidly. A throat infection in March, 1863, followed by pericarditis had developed into what was probably angina pectoris. He died on October 12, 1870, in the midst of plans for the further development of the college.

In a final chapter, "The Pattern of a Life," Freeman tells simply but eloquently the manner of man that Lee was--his daily routine, his method of work, his simple and sincere religion, his kindliness and his humility. "Those who look at him through the glamour of his victories or seek deep meanings in his silence will labor in vain to make him appear complicated. His language, his acts, and his personal life were simple for the unescapable reason that he was a simple gentleman."

The four volumes contain numerous photographs and sketch maps. The reader who is not familiar with the geography of Virginia and other areas in which Lee operated will sometimes wish for a larger map.

As the first two volumes came from the press several months before the last two, each pair is provided with a separate index--in the second and fourth volumes.

There is also a "short title" bibliography, for which there seems little need, in the same volumes and a longer, most excellent critical bibliography filling twenty-seven pages at the end of volume IV.

The mechanical work is faultless, the binding is handsome, and the work as a whole is worthy of its subject.

Charles W. Ramsdell
University of Texas

Robert E. Lee, Jefferson Davis, Stonewall Jackson in Stone Mountain stamp issued 1970.
Robert E. Lee, Jefferson Davis, Stonewall Jackson in Stone Mountain stamp issued 1970.
Robert E. Lee, Stonewall Jackson and Stratford Hall, Army Issue of 1936.
Robert E. Lee, Stonewall Jackson and Stratford Hall, Army Issue of 1936.
Washington and Lee University 200th anniversary on November 23, 1948.
Washington and Lee University 200th anniversary on November 23, 1948.
Arlington House, the Lees' estate, 1857, the grounds are now Arlington National Cemetery.
Arlington House, the Lees' estate, 1857, the grounds are now Arlington National Cemetery.

For Charles W. Ramsdell's nine best essays including "Lincoln and Fort Sumter," "The Natural Limits of Slavery Expansion," and "Carl Sandburg's Lincoln," and 15 book reviews, along with a 30 page Introduction by me, please see Charles W. Ramsdell, Dean of Southern Historians, Volume One: His Best Work, compiled by Gene Kizer, Jr., over 450 pages, on